Isolation, preparation, and characterization of nanofibers from oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB)
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Cellulose nanofibers were produced by hydrolyzing oil palm empty-fruit-bunches with sulfuric acid. The effect of hydrolysis time on the structure and properties of the nanofibers was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to evaluate the change of chemical composition. Atomic force microscope images showed that the average thickness of the nanofibers ranged from 1 to 3.5 nm as the hydrolysis time was varied. Longer hydrolysis time produced a higher yield of dispersed nanofibers; whereas the degree of crystallinity and the degree of polymerization decreased with increasing hydrolysis time. The degradation of nanofibers with higher sulfate group content started at a lower temperature.
KeywordsNanofiber Oil palm empty-fruit-bunch Cellulose Acid hydrolysis
The authors thank to Mr. Takuya Isogai (The University of Tokyo) for his assistance with DP measurements. One of the authors (Farah Fahma) is a recipient of the Japanese Government (Monbukagakusho) Scholarship Program.
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