, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 913–922 | Cite as

Nonalkali swelling solutions for regenerated cellulose

  • Ivana TatárováEmail author
  • Avinash P. Manian
  • Barbora Široká
  • Thomas Bechtold


Swelling of regenerated cellulose in nonalkali aqueous solutions containing lithium chloride and urea (LiCl/urea/water) was examined. The effect of solution concentration on fiber properties was studied using microscopy, weight gain (swelling), and mechanical strength tests. The regenerated cellulose samples included lyocell fibers, viscose fibers, and fibers spun from alkali. The change in the mechanical properties of treated fibers was smaller than that of fibers treated with alkali to the same level of swelling. The degree of swelling in these solutions was related to the propensity for the formation of Li–cellulose coordination complexes, and these were enhanced by reductions in both urea and water content.


Cellulose Fibers Swelling mechanism LiCl Urea Lyocell Viscose 



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 214015. The authors gratefully acknowledge Versuchsanstalt-Textil-Dornbirn for use of their facilities. They are also grateful to Ms. Sandra Köppel and Dr. Eduard Burtscher for assistance during nitrogen analysis.


  1. Bui HM, Lenninger M, Manian AP, Abu-Rous M, Schimper CB, Schuster KC, Bechtold T (2008) Treatment in swelling solutions modifying cellulose fiber reactivity—Part 2: accessibility and reactivity. Macromol Symp 262:50–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cuissinat C, Navard P (2006) Swelling and dissolution of cellulose Part 1: free floating cotton and wood fibres in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide-water mixtures. Macromol Symp 244:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dinand E, Vignon M, Chanzy H, Veux L (2002) Mercerization of primary wall cellulose and its implication for the conversion of cellulose I → cellulose II. Cellulose 9:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. El Seoud OA, Koschella A, Fidale LC, Dorn S, Heinze T (2007) Applications of ionic liquids in carbohydrate chemistry: a window of opportunities. Biomacromolecules 8:2629–2647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Freytag R, Donze JJ (1983) Chemical processing of fabrics—fundamentals and applications. In: Lewin M, Sello SB (eds) Handbook of fibre science and technology: part A, vol 1. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 91Google Scholar
  6. Klemm D, Philipp B, Heinze T, Heinze U, Wagenknecht W (1998) Comprehensive cellulose chemistry: fundamentals and analytical methods, vol 2. Weinheim, VCH Verlag, WILEYGoogle Scholar
  7. Kunze J, Fink HP (2005) Structural changes and activation of cellulose by caustic soda solution with urea. Macromol Symp 223:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Leipner H, Fischer S, Brendler E, Voigt W (2000) Structural changes of cellulose dissolved in molten salt hydrates. Macromol Chem Phys 201:2041–2049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li X, Yang ZZ (2005) Study of lithium cation in water clusters: based on atom-bond electronegativity equalization method fused into molecular mechanics. J Phys Chem A 109:4102–4111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marcincin A, Dolgos O, Rusnak A, Ciechanska D, Wawro D (2007) Rheological properties of biocelsol/viscose blend solutions and properties of regenerated cellulose films. Fibres Text East Eur 15:20–25Google Scholar
  11. McGavock WG, Bryant JM, Wendlandt WW (1956) Urea complexes of lithium chloride. Science 123:897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Olsher U, Izatt RM, Bradshaw JS, Dalley NK (1991) Coordination chemistry of lithium ion: a crystal and molecular structure–Review. Chem Rev 91:137–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Schurz J, Lenz J (1994) Investigations on the structure of regenerated cellulose fibers. Macromol Symp 83:273–289Google Scholar
  14. Striegel AM (2003) Advances in the understanding of the dissolution mechanism of cellulose in DMAc/LiCl. J Chil Chem Soc 48:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. White P (2001) Lyocell: the production process and market development. In: Woodings C (ed) Regenerated cellulose fibres. Woodhead, Cambridge, pp 62–88Google Scholar
  16. Wilkes AG (2001) The viscose process. In: Woodings C (ed) Regenerated cellulose fibres. Woodhead, Cambridge, pp 37–61Google Scholar
  17. Xiao M, Frey MW (2007) The role of salt on cellulose dissolution in ethylene diamine/salt solvent systems. Cellulose 14:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivana Tatárová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Avinash P. Manian
    • 1
  • Barbora Široká
    • 1
  • Thomas Bechtold
    • 1
  1. 1.University of InnsbruckResearch Institute of Textile Chemistry and Textile PhysicsDornbirnAustria

Personalised recommendations