, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 747–756 | Cite as

Characterisation of amino acid modified cellulose surfaces using ToF-SIMS and XPS

  • D. M. Kalaskar
  • R. V. Ulijn
  • J. E. Gough
  • M. R. Alexander
  • D. J. Scurr
  • W. W. Sampson
  • S. J. EichhornEmail author


Cellulosic fibrous networks are modified using 3 different amino acids; small (Glycine, Gly), aliphatic (Leucine, Leu) and aromatic (Phenylalanine, Phe). The effect of amino acid functionality on chemical coupling to cellulose fibres in terms of their coverage and packing density are investigated. Different amino acid modified cellulose networks are characterised by using Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of amino acids is confirmed using ToF-SIMS. The quantitative distribution of different amino acids across the cellulose surface is assessed by using XPS. It is shown that the packing density of amino acids depends on the size of the side chain; smaller amino acids (Gly, Leu) tend to couple to the surface at higher density compared to larger ones (Phe). This study has implications for the functionalisation of polysaccharide materials for a wide range of applications.


Amino acid Surface XPS ToF-SIMS 



The authors wish to thank the EPSRC for funding (Grant nos. EP/C0049301, EP.C004507/1 and EP/C004558/1) and to the ORS (Overseas Research Scholarship) and the University of Manchester for funding a doctoral studentship. We gratefully acknowledge a contribution to ToF-SIMS equipment facilities by the East Midlands Development Agency.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. M. Kalaskar
    • 1
  • R. V. Ulijn
    • 2
  • J. E. Gough
    • 1
  • M. R. Alexander
    • 3
  • D. J. Scurr
    • 3
  • W. W. Sampson
    • 1
  • S. J. Eichhorn
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Materials Science Centre, School of MaterialsUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry/WestCHEMThe University of StrathclydeGlasgowUK
  3. 3.Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of PharmacyThe University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

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