, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 139–151 | Cite as

Structure elucidation of uniformly 13C-labeled bacterial celluloses from different Gluconacetobacter xylinus strains

  • Stephanie Hesse-ErteltEmail author
  • Thomas Heinze
  • Eiji Togawa
  • Tetsuo Kondo


The morphological and supramolecular structures of native cellulose pellicles from two strains of Gluconacetobacter xylinus (ATCC 53582, ATCC 23769) were investigated. Samples had been statically cultivated in Hestrin-Schramm medium containing fully 13C-labeled β-d-glucose-U-13C6 as the sole source of carbon. The results are compared with structure data of bacterial celluloses with a natural 13C abundance of 1.1%. Non-enriched and 13C-labeled cellulose pellicles formed crystalline structures as revealed by cross-polarized/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C{1H}-NMR and near infrared (NIR) FT-Raman spectroscopic measurements as well as wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) investigations. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied for analyzing fiber morphologies and surface properties. For the first time, details about the manipulation of fiber widths and pellicle formation were shown for different bacterial strains of G. xylinus depending on the use of β-d-glucose-U-13C6 for the biosynthesis.


Bacterial cellulose Gluconacetobacter xylinus 13C-Labeling Biosynthesis 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance NIR FT-Raman Atomic force microscopy Wide-angle X-ray diffraction Crystallinity 


A. xylinum

Acetobacter xylinum


Atomic force microscopy


American type culture collection


Bacterial strain ATCC 23769


Bacterial cellulose


Crystallinity index


Cross polarization


Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen


Fourier transformed Raman


Full width at half maximum

G. xylinus

Gluconacetobacter xylinus



Iα, Iβ

Cellulose modifications


Crystallinity value obtained by NMR


Incredible natural abundance double quantum transfer experiment


Magic angle spinning


Near infrared


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Nematic ordered cellulose


Bacterial strain ATCC 53582


Two pulse phase modulation


Wide-angle X-ray diffraction


Crystallinity value obtained by WAXD



This research was financial supported by the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena (Foerderung von Frauen in Forschung und Lehre, Kapitel 1524/TG 84, 2002) for StHE, by MAFF Nanotechnology Project, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and partly by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 14360101), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) for TK. The authors are also indebted to Dr. U. Sternberg (FZ Karlsruhe, Germany) for partly financing d-glucose-U-13C6. We thank Dr. S. Kimura and Ms. A. Morohoshi (FFPRI Tsukuba, Japan) for their kind assistance through this research, and Dr. W. Plass and Dr. A. Pohlmann (IAAC, FSU Jena, Germany) for providing the NIR FT-Raman spectrometer. StHE particularly thanks TK for the chance of sample preparation and characterization with his former group at the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI), Matusnosato 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Hesse-Ertelt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thomas Heinze
    • 1
  • Eiji Togawa
    • 2
  • Tetsuo Kondo
    • 3
  1. 1.Friedrich Schiller University of JenaCentre of Excellence for Polysaccharide ResearchJenaGermany
  2. 2.Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI)Tsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  3. 3.Bio-Architecture Center (KBAC) and Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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