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Cellulose

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 1033–1045 | Cite as

Effect of different additives on bacterial cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum and analysis of material property

  • Kuan-Chen Cheng
  • Jeffrey M. CatchmarkEmail author
  • Ali Demirci
Article

Abstract

Bacterial cellulose (BC) demonstrates unique properties including high mechanical strength, high crystallinity, and high water retention ability, which make it an useful material in many industries, such as food, paper manufacturing, and pharmaceutical application. In this study, different additives including agar, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium alginate were added into fermentation medium in agitated culture to enhance BC production by Acetobacter xylinum. The optimal additive was chosen based on the amount of BC produced. The produced BC was analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Among the evaluated additives, CMC yielded highest BC production (8.2 g/L) compared to the control (1.3 g/L). The results also indicated that CMC-altered BC production increased with CMC addition and reached saturation around 1%. The variation between replicates for all analysis was <5%. From XRD analysis, however, the crystallinity and crystal size decreased as CMC addition increased. FESEM results showed CMC-altered BC produced from agitated culture retained its interweaving property. TGA results demonstrated that CMC-altered BC had about 98% water retention ability, which is higher than BC pellicle produced with static culture. CMC-altered BC also exhibited higher Tmax compared to control. Finally, DMA results showed that BC from agitated culture loses its mechanical strength in both stress at break and Young’s modulus when compared to BC pellicle. This study clearly demonstrated that addition of CMC enhanced BC production and slightly changed its structure.

Keywords

Bacterial cellulose Acetobacter xylinum Cellulose crystallinity, cellulose yield 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by a seed grant from the College of Agricultural Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University and the Pennsylvania Experiment Station. The authors are very grateful to Nichole Wonderling from the Materials Research Institute of the Pennsylvania State University for her assistance with X-ray diffraction measurements. Thanks also to Yang Hu and Yufan Zeng in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering and Forest Resources department for useful discussion of DMA and TGA analysis.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kuan-Chen Cheng
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. Catchmark
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ali Demirci
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Biological EngineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.The Huck Institutes of Life SciencesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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