, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 795–806 | Cite as

Assessing the combined benefits of clay and nanofibrillated cellulose in layered TMP-based sheets

  • K. Mörseburg
  • G. Chinga-Carrasco


A new concept for both furnish composition and z-directional furnish arrangement involving the interaction between specific thermo-mechanical pulp fractions (TMP), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and clay in oriented layered laboratory sheets is presented. Used separately, NFC improves the strength properties of paper while fillers enhance the optical properties. Synergy effects of clay–NFC interactions are assessed. The study comprises a structural assessment, including laser profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field-emission (FE)-SEM analyses. In addition, optical and strength properties are assessed. It is demonstrated that a potential reduction of strength properties caused by filler addition may be counteracted by appropriate NFC addition to specific layers in the z-direction. Based on an estimation of an overall quality index considering five variables, it is concluded that the best sheet construction is obtained when placing the fillers in surface layers with the TMP accept fraction and the NFC in the centre of the sheets together with the refined TMP reject fraction.


Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) Mechanical properties Optical properties Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Surface analysis techniques 



The authors thank Norske Skog Industrier ASA for financial and technical support, cooperation and permission to publish this work. Kristin Syverud and Øyvind Eriksen (PFI) are acknowledged for providing the nanofibrillated cellulose sample and product information. Ida Christiansen, Berit Leinsvang, Oksana Kalouzskaya, Merete Wiig, Kenneth Aasarød and Trond Karlsen (PFI) are acknowledged for their dedicated work at the laboratories. Kristin Syverud (PFI), Øyvind Gregersen (NTNU), Jan Hill (Norske Skog ASA) and Lars Johansson (PFI) are thanked for commenting the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paper and Fibre Research Institute (PFI AS)TrondheimNorway

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