Advertisement

Cellulose

, 16:339 | Cite as

Diffusion rate of polyethylene glycol into cell walls of red pine following vacuum impregnation

  • Dragica JeremicEmail author
  • Carlos Quijano-Solis
  • Paul Cooper
Article

Abstract

Rates of penetration of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular weight (MW) 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 from 30% aqueous solutions into hydrated cell walls of red pine samples following vacuum impregnation were estimated by examining retained swelling of the samples after different post-treatment conditioning times. To model PEG diffusion into wood cell walls, a hollow cylinder diffusion model was developed and diffusion coefficients were estimated and compared to those determined with a plane membrane diffusion model. The models gave similar results. The diffusion coefficient of PEG MW 1,000 at room temperature was estimated to be in the order of 10−13 m2/s, while the penetration rates of both PEG 2,000 and 4,000 were about an order lower. These findings indicate that treatments of wood by PEG can be significantly shorter than present practices of soaking green samples in solution if the samples are vacuum/pressure impregnated with PEG solution.

Keywords

Wood Cell wall Diffusion Cylinder Plane Polymer Polyethylene glycol MW 

Abbreviations

\( \sqrt t \)

Square root of time

D

Diffusion coefficient

EMC

Equilibrium moisture content

FSP

Fiber saturation point

long

Longitudinal direction

M

Total amount of substance diffused into the cell walls at equilibrium

Mt

Amount of substance diffused into the cell walls at any time t

MW

Molecular weight

MWD

Molecular weight distribution

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

rad

Radial direction

Rh_PEG

Hydrodynamic radius of PEG molecule in water solution

Rh_wat

Hydrodynamic radius of water molecule

RSTR

Retained swelling upon treatment, %

STEM-EDXA

Scanning transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer

tang

Tangential direction

\( V_{\text{TR}}^{\text{D}} \)

Dry volume of samples upon treatment, cm3

\( V_{\text{UNTR}}^{\text{D}} \)

Initial volume of freeze-dried samples, cm3

ηPEG

Viscosity of aqueous PEG solution

ηwat

Viscosity of water

References

  1. Andreoli TE, Dennis WV, Weigl AM (1969) The effect of Amphotericin B on the water and nonelectrolyte permeability of thin lipid membranes. J Gen Physiol 53:133–156. doi: 10.1085/jgp.53.2.133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Basmadjian D (1999) The art of modeling in science and engineering. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 237 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Carslaw HS, Jaeger JC (1959) Conduction of heat in solids. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 332–333Google Scholar
  4. Choong ET (1965) Diffusion coefficients of softwoods by steady-state and theoretical methods. For Prod J 15(1):21–27Google Scholar
  5. Cooper PA (1996) Rate of swelling of vacuum-impregnated wood. Wood Fiber Sci 28(1):28–38Google Scholar
  6. Cooper PA (1998) Diffusion of copper in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Wood Fiber Sci 30(4):382–395Google Scholar
  7. Crank J (1970) The mathematics of diffusion. Oxford University Press, London, pp 45, 62Google Scholar
  8. Dohmen MPJ, Pereira AM, Timmer JMK, Benes NE, Keurentjes JTF (2008) Hydrodynamic radii of polyethylene glycol in different solvents determined from viscosity measurements. J Chem Eng Data 53(1):63–65. doi: 10.1021/je700355n CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ericson HD, Schmidt RN, Laing JR (1968) Freeze-drying and wood shrinkage. For Prod J 18(6):63–68Google Scholar
  10. Fee CJ, Van Alstine JM (2004) Prediction of the viscosity radius and the size exclusion chromatography behavior of PEGylated proteins. Bioconjug Chem 15(6):1304–1313. doi: 10.1021/bc049843w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoffmann P (1989) HPLC for the analysis of polyethylene glycols (PEG) in wood. In: Conservation of wet wood and metal. Proceedings of the ICOM conservation working groups on wet organic archaeological materials and metals. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Australia, pp 41–60Google Scholar
  12. Ishimaru Y, Inoue E, Sadoh T, Nakato K (1986) Dimensional stability of wood with adsorbed polyethylene glycol. I. Effect of molecular weight. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 32(11):888–895Google Scholar
  13. Jeremic D, Cooper P, Heyd D (2006) PEG bulking of wood cell walls as affected by moisture content and nature of solvent. Wood Sci Technol 41(7):597–606. doi: 10.1007/s00226-006-0120-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeremic D, Cooper P, Brodersen P (2007) Penetration of poly(ethylene glycol) into wood cell walls of red pine. Holzforschung 61(3):272–278. doi: 10.1515/HF.2007.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kirincic S, Klofutar C (1999) Viscosity of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol)s at 298.15 K. Fluid Phase Equilib 155(2):311–325. doi: 10.1016/S0378-3812(99)00005-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kitani Y, Ohsawa J, Nakato K (1970) Adsorption of polyethylene glycol on water-swollen wood versus molecular weight. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 16(7):326–333Google Scholar
  17. Mantanis GI, Young RA, Rowell RM (1994) Swelling of wood. Part II. Swelling in organic liquids. Holzforschung 48(6):480–490Google Scholar
  18. Mantanis GI, Young RA, Rowell RM (1995a) Swelling of wood. Part III. Effect of temperature and extractives on rate and maximum swelling. Holzforschung 49(3):239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mantanis GI, Young RA, Rowell RM (1995b) Swelling of wood. Part IV. A statistical model for prediction of maximum swelling of wood in organic liquids. Wood Fiber Sci 27(1):22–24Google Scholar
  20. Panshin AJ, de Zeeuw C (1970) Textbook of wood technology, vol 1, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, p 123Google Scholar
  21. Stamm AJ (1959) Bound-water diffusion into wood in the fiber direction. For Prod J 9(1):27–32Google Scholar
  22. Stamm AJ (1960) Bound-water diffusion into wood in the across-the-fiber direction. For Prod J 10(10):524–528Google Scholar
  23. Stamm AJ (1964) Factors affecting the bulking and dimensional stabilization of wood with polyethylene glycols. For Prod J 14(9):403–408Google Scholar
  24. Thomas DK, Charlesby A (1960) Viscosity relationship in solutions of polyethylene glycols. J Polym Sci 42(139):195–202. doi: 10.1002/pol.1960.1204213922 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wallstrom L, Lindberg KAH, Johansson J (1995) Wood surface stabilization. Holz Roh Werkst 53:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yata S, Mukudai J, Kajita H (1979) Morphological studies on the movement of substances into the cell wall of wood. II. Diffusion of copper compounds into the cell wall. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 25(3):171–176Google Scholar
  27. Yata S, Mukudai J, Kajita H (1981a) Morphological studies on the movement of substances into the cell wall of wood. III. Diffusion of zinc compounds into the cell wall. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 27(11):761–766Google Scholar
  28. Yata S, Mukudai J, Kajita H (1981b) Morphological studies on the movement of substances into the cell wall of wood. IV. Diffusion of hexavalent chromium into the cell wall. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 27(12):821–827Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dragica Jeremic
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carlos Quijano-Solis
    • 1
  • Paul Cooper
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of ForestryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations