Cellulose nanofibrils—adsorption with poly(amideamine) epichlorohydrin studied by QCM-D and application as a paper strength additive
- 1.9k Downloads
In this paper cellulose nanofibrils were used together with a cationic polylelectrolyte, poly(amideamine) epichlorohydrin (PAE), to enhance the wet and the dry strength of paper. The adsorption of nanofibrils and PAE on cellulose model surfaces was studied using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The differences in fibril and polyelectrolyte adding strategies onto cellulose fibres were studied by comparing layer-structures and nano-aggregates formed by the nanofibrils and PAE. The results showed that when PAE was first adsorbed on the model fibre surface a uniform and viscous layer of nanofibrils could be adsorbed. When PAE and nanofibrils were adsorbed as cationic aggregates a non-uniform and more rigid layer was adsorbed. Paper sheets were prepared using both the bi-layer and nano-aggregate adding strategy of the nanofibrils and PAE. When PAE and nanofibrils were adsorbed on pulp fibres as a bi-layer system significant increase in both wet and dry tensile strength of paper could be achieved even at low added amounts of PAE. When the substances were added as nano-aggregates the improvements in paper strength properties were not as significant. Bulk and surface nitrogen content analyses of the paper samples showed that the adding strategy does not affect the total adsorbed amount of PAE but it has a strong effect on distribution of substances in the paper matrix which has a crucial effect on paper wet and dry strength development.
KeywordsAdsorption Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Cellulose nanofibril Dry strength Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) Poly(amideamine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) Polyelectrolyte Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) Wet strength
This work has been performed as a part of “Nanostructured cellulose products”-project in the Finnish-Swedish Wood Material Science Research Program. Prof. Tom Lindström and M.Sc. Mikael Ankerfors at STFI-Packforsk are acknowledged for providing the nanofibril samples. Dr. Leena-Sisko Johansson is greatly acknowledged for performing the XPS analysis and helping in the analyzing process. Mrs. Gunborg Glad Nordmark at STFI-Packforsk is acknowledged for performing the bulk nitrogen analysis. The experimental assistance of Mrs Marja Kärkkäinen and Mrs Aila Rahkola is gratefully acknowledged.
- Berglund L (2005) Cellulose-based nanocomposites. In: Mohanty A, Misra M, Drzal L (eds) Natural fibers, biopolymers and biocomposites. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Espy H (1995) The mechanism of wet-strength development in paper: a review. Tappi J 78:90–99Google Scholar
- Herrick F, Casebier R, Hamilton J et al (1983) Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility. J Appl Polym Sci: Appl Polym Symp 37:797–813Google Scholar
- Jeong C, Maciel A, Pawlak J et al (2005) Following cellulose activity by the quartz crystal microbalance technique. In: Proceedings of the 13th ISWFPC Symposium, Auckland, 2005, pp 495–502Google Scholar
- Laine J, Lindström T, Glad Nordmark G et al (2002) Studies on topochemical modification of cellulosic fibres. Part 3. The effect of Carboxymethyl cellulose attachment on wet-strength development by alkaline-curing polyamide-amine epichlorohydrin resins. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 17:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lindström T, Wågberg L, Larsson T (2005) On the nature of joint strength in paper- a review of dry and wet strength resins used in paper manufacturing. Adv Pap Sci Tech 13th Fund Res Symp 1:457–562Google Scholar
- Paananen A, Österberg M, Rutland M et al (2004), Interaction between cellulose and xylan: an atomic force microscope and quartz crystal microbalance study. In: Gatenholm P, Tenkanen M (eds) 864 Hemicelluloses: Science and Technology, American Chemical Society. ACS Symp. Ser., Washington, pp 269–290Google Scholar
- Salmi J, Saarinen T, Laine J et al (2003) The effect of cationic polyelectrolytes on surface forces and structure of cellulose-polyelectrolyte interface. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Paper and Coating Chemistry Symposium, Montreal, pp 157–160Google Scholar
- Turbak A, Snyder F, Sandberg K (1983) Microfibrillated cellulose, a new cellulose product: properties, uses, and commercial potential. J Appl Polym Sci: Appl Polym Symp 37:815–827Google Scholar
- Wågberg L, Decher G, Norgren M et al (2007) The build-up of polyelectrolyte multilayers of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) and cationic polyelectrolytes. Langmuir, submittedGoogle Scholar