, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 149–159 | Cite as

Extraction of cellulose and preparation of nanocellulose from sisal fibers

  • Juan I. Morán
  • Vera A. Alvarez
  • Viviana P. Cyras
  • Analia Vázquez


In this work a study on the feasibility of extracting cellulose from sisal fiber, by means of two different procedures was carried out. These processes included usual chemical procedures such as acid hydrolysis, chlorination, alkaline extraction, and bleaching. The final products were characterized by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). The extraction procedures that were used led to purified cellulose. Advantages and disadvantages of both procedures were also analyzed. Finally, nanocellulose was produced by the acid hydrolysis of obtained cellulose and characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).


Cellulose Sisal fibers Extraction procedures Characterization Nanocellulose 


  1. Alvarez VA, Vazquez A (2006) Influence of fiber chemical modification procedure on the mechanical properties and water absorption of MaterBi/Sisal fiber composites. Compos Part A: Appl S 37(10):1672–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baird MS, Hamlin JD, O’Sullivan, Whiting A (2006) An insight into the mechanism of the cellulose dyeing process: molecular modelling and simulations of cellulose and its interactions with water, urea, aromatic azo-dyes and aryl ammonium compounds. Dyes Pigments, (in Press), It was not actualizedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhatnagar A, Sain M (2005) Processing of cellulose nanofiber-reinforced composites. J Reinf Plast Comp 24(12):1259–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benziman M, Haigler CH, Brown RMJ, White AR, Cooper KM (1980) Cellulose biogenesis: polymerization and crystallization are coupled processes in Acetobacter xylinum. National Academy of Science, USA, p 4Google Scholar
  5. Bledzki A-K, Gassan J (1999) Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres. Prog Polym Sci 24:221–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chattopadhyay H, Sarkar PB (1946) A New Method for the Estimation of Cellulose. Proc Natl Inst Sci India 12(1):23–46Google Scholar
  7. Cyras VP, Vallo C, Kenny JM, Vazquez A (2004) Effect of the chemical treatment on the mechanical properties of the PCL/starch and sisal fiber composites. J Compos Mater 38(16):512–520Google Scholar
  8. Deraman M, Zakaria S, Murshidi JA (2001) Estimation of crystallinity and cryistallite size of cellulose in benzylated fibres of oil palm empty fruit bunches by X-Ray Diffraction. J Appl Phys 40:311–315Google Scholar
  9. Doraiswammy I, Chellamani P (1993) Pineapple-leaf fibers. Text Progr 24(1):1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. García-Jaldon G, Dupeyre D, Vignon MR (1998) Fibers from semi-retted hemp bundles by steam explosion treatment. Biomass Bioenerg 14:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodger EM (1976) Hydrocarbon fuels, production, properties and performance of liquids and gases. Macmillan, London, p 120Google Scholar
  12. Itoh T, Brown RMJ (1984) The assembly of cellulose microfibrils in Valonia macrophysa. Planta 160:372–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lojewska J, Miskowiec P, Lojewski T, Pronienwicz LM (2005) Cellulose oxidative and hydrolytic degradation: in situ FTIR approach. Polym Degrad Stab 88:512–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mwaikambo LY, Ansell MP (2002) Chemical modification of hemp, sisal, jute, and kapok fibers by alkalization. J Appl Polym Sci 84:2222–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nelson ML, O’Connor RT (1964) Relation of certain infrared bands to cellulose crystallinity and crystal lattice type. Part II: a new infrared ratio for estimation of crystallinity in celluloses I and II. J Appl Polym Sci 8(3):1328–1341Google Scholar
  16. Oh SY, Yoo DI, Shin Y, Seo G (2005) FTIR analysis of cellulose treated with sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide. Carbohyd Res 340:417–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Reddy N, Yang Y (2005) Structure and properties of high quality natural cellulose fiber from cornstalks. Polymer 46(15):5494–5500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rong MZ, Zhang MQ, Lui Y, Yang GC, Zeng HM (2001) The effect of fiber treatment on the mechanical properties of unidirectional sisal-reinforced epoxi composites. Compos Sci Technol 61:1437–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rowell RM, Young RA, Rowell JK (eds) (1996) Paper and composites from agro-based resources. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  20. Samir M, Alloin F, Paillet M, Dufresne A (2004) Tangling effect in fibrillated cellulose reinforced nanocomposites. Macromolecules 37:4313–4316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sarkar PB, Mazumdar AK, Pal KB (1948) The hemicelluloses of jute fibre. J Tex Inst 39(T44):44–58Google Scholar
  22. Hon DNS (ed) (1996) Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Sun RC, Sun XF (2002) Fractional and structural characterization of hemicelluloses isolated by alkali and alkaline peroxide from barley straw. Carbohyd Polym 49:415–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sun XF, Sun RC, Su Y, Sun JX (2004) Comparative study of crude and purified cellulose from wheat straw. J Agric Food Chem 52:839–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vignon MR, Heux L, Malainine ME, Mahrouz M (2004) Arabinan-cellulose composite in Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear spines Carbohyd Res 339(1):123–131Google Scholar
  26. Yang H, Yan R, Chen H, Dong Ho L, Zheng C (2007) Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. Fuel, (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan I. Morán
    • 1
  • Vera A. Alvarez
    • 1
  • Viviana P. Cyras
    • 1
  • Analia Vázquez
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Material Science and Technology (INTEMA)National Research Council (CONICET) – Universidad Nacional de Mar del PlataMar del PlataArgentina

Personalised recommendations