Advertisement

Cellulose

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 655–663 | Cite as

The effect of adsorbed carboxymethyl cellulose on the cotton fibre adsorption capacity for surfactant

  • L. Fras-ZemljičEmail author
  • P. Stenius
  • J. Laine
  • K. Stana-Kleinschek
Article

Abstract

The research reported in this paper demonstrates that the capacity of cotton fibres to adsorb cationic surfactants as well as the rate of the adsorption process can be increased by adsorbing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) onto the fibre surfaces; in addition, the adsorption can be restricted to the fibre surface. CMC was deposited by means of adsorption from an aqueous solution. The adsorption of N-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) from an aqueous solution onto the CMC-modified fibres was measured using UV-spectrometric determination of the surfactant concentration in the solution. Adsorption onto the cotton fibres was studied in a weakly basic environment (pH 8.5) where cotton fibres are negatively charged and the CPC ion is positively charged. Modification of the fibres by adsorption of CMC introduces new carboxyl groups onto the fibre surfaces, thereby increasing the adsorption capacity of the fibres for CPC. The initial rate of adsorption of CPC increased proportionally with the amount of charge; however, this rate slowed down at high degrees of coverage on fibres with a high charge. The adsorption of cationic surfactant to the anionic surface groups was stoichiometric, with no indication of multilayer or admicelle formation. It was evident that the acidic group content of the fibres was the primary factor determining cationic surfactant adsorption to these fibres.

Keywords

Acid groups in fibres Adsorption capacity Carboxymethyl cellulose surfactant adsorption Conductometric titration Cotton fibres Modification of fibres Surfactant adsorption UV spectroscopy 

Abbreviations

CMC

Carboxymethyl cellulose

CPC

Cetylpyridinium chloride

c.m.c.

Critical micelle concentration

Symbols

a

Fibre radius

A0

Absorbance at the start of the experiment

Aeq

Absorbance at equilibrium time

At

Absorbance of bath at time t

c

Concentration of absorbing species

ceq

Concentration of surfactant at equilibrium time

cF

Equilibrium uptake of surfactant

ct

Concentration of surfactant in the fibre at time t

D

Diffusion coefficient

de

Degree of exhaustion

Dha

Diffusion coefficient determined from the half-adsorption time

Dsr

Diffusion coefficient calculated according to the square root law equation

k

Absorbance coefficient

K

Slope of the curve \(c_{t}/c_{\rm eq=}\hbox{f}(\sqrt{t})\)

l

thickness of sample

M

Molar mass of surfactant

\(\bar{M}_w\)

average molecular weight

mfibre

Mass of fibres

msur

Mass of surfactant

t½

Half-adsorption time

V

Solution volume

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ander P. and Sonessa A.P. 1965. Principles of Chemistry. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Atkin R., Craig V.S.J., Wanless E.J., and Biggs S. 2003. Surfactant adsorption at the solid-liquid interface. Adv. Coll. Interface Sci. 103: 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crank J. 1956. Mathematics of Diffusion. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. Edwards J.V. and Vigo T.L. 2001. Bioactive Fibers and Polymers. American Chemical Society, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  5. Espinoza-Jimenez M., Gimenez-Martin E. and Ontiveros-Ortega A. 1997. Absorption of N-cetylpyridinium chloride leacril fibers: kinetics and thermodynamics. Textile Res. J. 67: 677.Google Scholar
  6. Evans P.G. and Evans W.P. 1967. J. Appl. Chem. 17: 267.Google Scholar
  7. Fors C. 2000. The effect of fibre charge on web consolidation in papermaking. Licentiate thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  8. Fras, L. 2004. Določitev disociacijskih constant funkcionalnih skupin kemijsko modificiranih celuloznih vlaken ter opredelitev površinskega naboja. PhD thesis, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.Google Scholar
  9. Fras L., Laine J., Stenius P., Stana-Kleinschek K., Ribitsch V. and Dolecek V. (2004) Determination of dissociable groups in natural and regenerated cellulose fibers by different titration methods. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 92: 3186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jungerman E. 1970. Cationic Surfactants. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Kabanov V.A. and Zezin A.B. 1984. Soluble interpolymeric complexes as a newclass of synthetic polyelectrolytes. Pure Appl. Chem. 56: 343Google Scholar
  12. Katz S., Beatson R.P. and Scallan A.M. 1984. The determination of strong and weak acidic groups in sulfite pulps. Svensk. Papperst. 87: 48.Google Scholar
  13. La Mesa C. 1999. Binding of surfactants onto polymers. A kinetic model. Colloids Surf. A, 160: 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Laine, J. and Lindström T. 2001. Topochemical modification of cellulosic fibres with bipolar activators. An overview of some technical application. Das Papier: 40.Google Scholar
  15. Laine J. and Lindström T. 2000. Studies on topochemical modification of cellulosic materials. Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J. 15: 520.Google Scholar
  16. Laine J., Lindström T., Glad-Nordmark G. and Risinger G. 2002. Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J. 17(1): 50.Google Scholar
  17. Mahanta D., Chaliha B.P. and Baruah J.N. 1987. Adsorption kinetics of cationic polyacrylamide onto cellulosic-fibres. Colloids & Surfaces 25: 101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Parfitt G.D. and Rochester C.H. 1983. Adsorption from Solution at the Solid/Liquid Interface. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Sjöström E. and Enström B. 1966. Svensk. Papperst. 69: 55.Google Scholar
  20. Speakman, J.B. 1941. J. Textile Inst. T83–T108.Google Scholar
  21. Tusek L. 2003. Surface and adsorption properties of modified polyamide 6. PhD thesis, Department of Physical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University of Graz, Graz, Austria.Google Scholar
  22. Wollina U., Heide M., Müller-Litz W., Obenauf D. and Ash J. 2003. Textiles and the Skin. Curr. Probl. Dermatol. Basel, Karger, 31: 82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Fras-Zemljič
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Stenius
    • 2
  • J. Laine
    • 2
  • K. Stana-Kleinschek
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Forest Products ChemistryHelsinki University of Technology (HUT)EspooFinland

Personalised recommendations