Advertisement

The Direct and Indirect Relations Between Self-Regulation and Language Development Among Monolinguals and Dual Language Learners

  • Emily HannoEmail author
  • Sarah Surrain
Article

Abstract

In this review, we expand the conversation on the relations between self-regulation and language development in early childhood to include the growing population of dual language learners (DLLs). In the first sections, we highlight similarities in the timing and mechanisms of self-regulation and language development, respectively, and then summarize theoretical and empirical literature on the domains’ joint development. We ground this review in a conceptual model of the direct and indirect relations between skills in the two domains. In terms of direct relations, language facilitates mental organization and representation of self-regulation, whereas self-regulation allows children to capitalize on language-learning opportunities. Indirectly, self-regulation and language are related through shared ecological contexts of development. Throughout, we evaluate the applicability of our conceptual model among DLLs in light of evidence that: (1) language background is associated with unique contextual realities with implications for development in both domains, and (2) contemporary methodological approaches often fail to accurately capture DLLs’ skills in either domain. We present recommendations for future research on the relation between self-regulation and language that take into account these distinct considerations for DLLs.

Keywords

Self-regulation Language Cross-domain development Dual language learners 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Emily Hanno and Sarah Surrain declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Adesope, O., Lavin, T., & Ungerleider, C. (2010). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive correlates of bilingualism. Review of Educational Research, 80(2), 207–245.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654310368803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aikens, N., Knas, E., Malone, L., Tarullo, L., & Harding, J. F. (2017). A spotlight on dual language learners in Head Start: FACES 2014 (No. OPRE Report 2017-99) (pp. 1–15). Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  3. Araújo Dawson, B., & Williams, S. A. (2008). The impact of language status as an acculturative stressor on internalizing and externalizing behaviors among Latino/a children: A longitudinal analysis from school entry through third grade. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(4), 399–411.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9233-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Astington, J. W., & Baird, J. A. (2005). Why language matters for theory of mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barac, R., Bialystok, E., Castro, D. C., & Sanchez, M. (2014). The cognitive development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 699–714.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.02.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Best, J. R., & Miller, P. H. (2010). A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641–1660.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(1), 3–11.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bialystok, E. (2015). Bilingualism and the development of executive function: The role of attention. Child Development Perspectives, 9(2), 117–121.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12116.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bialystok, E. (2017). The bilingual adaptation: How minds accommodate experience. Psychological Bulletin, 143(3), 233–262.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000099.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Blaye, A., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2010). Word mapping and executive functioning in young monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11(4), 485–508.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2010.516420.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K. F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(4), 525–531.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bierman, K. L., Domitrovich, C. E., Nix, R. L., Gest, S. D., Welsh, J. A., Greenberg, M. T., … Gill, S. (2008). Promoting academic and social-emotional school readiness: The head start REDI program. Child Development, 79(6), 1802–1817.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01227.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bierman, K. L., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., Blair, C., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2008). Executive functions and school readiness intervention: Impact, moderation, and mediation in the Head Start REDI program. Development and Psychopathology.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000394.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bierman, K. L., Welsh, J., Heinrichs, B. S., & Nix, R. L. (2018). Effect of preschool home visiting on school readiness and need for services in elementary school: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2), 111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blair, C., & Diamond, A. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure. Development and Psychopathology.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000436.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: A developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66(1), 711–731.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647–663.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bohlmann, N. L., & Downer, J. T. (2016). Self-regulation and task engagement as predictors of emergent language and literacy skills. Early Education and Development, 27(1), 18–37.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2015.1046784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bohlmann, N. L., Maier, M. F., & Palacios, N. (2015). Bidirectionality in self-regulation and expressive vocabulary: Comparisons between monolingual and dual language learners in preschool. Child Development, 86(4), 1094–1111.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Theoretical models of human development (Vol. 1, 5th ed., pp. 993–1028). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 1, 6th ed., pp. 793–828). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buac, M., Gross, M., & Kaushanskaya, M. (2014). The role of primary caregiver vocabulary knowledge in the development of bilingual children’s vocabulary skills. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(5), 1804–1816.  https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-13-0055.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Burchinal, M., Field, S., López, M. L., Howes, C., & Pianta, R. (2012). Instruction in Spanish in pre-kindergarten classrooms and child outcomes for English language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 188–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cadima, J., Barros, S., Ferreira, T., Serra-Lemos, M., Leal, T., & Verschueren, K. (2018). Bidirectional associations between vocabulary and self-regulation in preschool and their interplay with teacher–child closeness and autonomy support. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carlson, S. M. (2009). Social origins of executive function development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 123, 87–98.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlson, S. M., Davis, A., & Leach, J. (2005). Less Is more: Executive function and symbolic representation in preschool children. Psychological Science, 16(8), 609–616.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Castro, D. C., Páez, M. M., Dickinson, D. K., & Frede, E. (2011). Promoting language and literacy in young dual language learners: Research, practice, and policy. Child Development Perspectives, 5(1), 15–21.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00142.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chang, F., Crawford, G., Early, D., Bryant, D., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., … Pianta, R. (2007). Spanish-speaking children’s social and language development in pre-kindergarten classrooms. Early Education and Development, 18(2), 243–269.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280701282959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Child Trends. (2014). Dual Language Learners (pp. 1–22). Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=dual-language-learners.
  31. Colé, P., Duncan, L. G., & Blaye, A. (2014). Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 565.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Collins, B. A. (2014). Dual language development of Latino children: Effect of instructional program type and the home and school language environment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(3), 389–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.04.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Collins, B. A., Toppelberg, C. O., Suárez-Orozco, C., O’Connor, E., & Nieto-Castañon, A. (2011). Cross-sectional associations of Spanish and English competence and well-being in Latino children of immigrants in kindergarten. International Journal of the Sociology of Language.  https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2011.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crosnoe, R. (2007). Early child care and the school readiness of children from Mexican immigrant families. International Migration Review, 41(1), 152–181.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2007.00060.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cuevas, K., & Bell, M. A. (2014). Infant attention and early childhood executive function. Child Development, 85(2), 397–404.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cuevas, K., Deater-Deckard, K., Kim-Spoon, J., Watson, A. J., Morasch, K. C., & Bell, M. A. (2014). What’s mom got to do with it? Contributions of maternal executive function and caregiving to the development of executive function across early childhood. Developmental Science, 17(2), 224–238.  https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12073.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Davidson, M. C., Amso, D., Anderson, L. C., & Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuropsychologia, 44(11), 2037–2078.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.02.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. De Feyter, J. J., & Winsler, A. (2009). The early developmental competencies and school readiness of low-income, immigrant children: Influences of generation, race/ethnicity, and national origins. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(4), 411–431.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Houwer, A., Bornstein, M. H., & Putnick, D. L. (2014). A bilingual–monolingual comparison of young children’s vocabulary size: Evidence from comprehension and production. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(06), 1189–1211.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Diamond, A. (1988). Abilities and neural mechanisms underlying AB̄ performance. Child Development, 59(2), 523–527.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1130330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64(1), 135–168.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Diaz, R. M., & Berk, L. E. (Eds.). (1992). Private speech: From social interaction to self-regulation. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  43. Dickinson, D. K., McCabe, A., Anastasopoulos, L., Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., & Poe, M. D. (2003). The comprehensive language approach to early literacy: The interrelationships among vocabulary, phonological sensitivity, and print knowledge among preschool-aged children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(3), 465–481.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.3.465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dickinson, D. K., & Porche, M. V. (2011). Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children’s kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities. Child Development, 82(3), 870–886.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01576.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dickinson, D. K., & Tabors, P. O. (2001). Beginning literacy with language: Young children learning at home and school. Baltimore: Paul H Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. Dilworth-Bart, J. E. (2012). Does executive function mediate SES and home quality associations with academic readiness? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(3), 416–425.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Duncan, J., & Owen, A. M. (2000). Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands. Trends in Neurosciences, 23(10), 475–483.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2236(00)01633-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Eisenberg, N., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2005). Associations of emotion-related regulation with language skills, emotion knowledge, and academic outcomes. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 109, 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Self-regulation and school readiness. Early Education & Development, 21(5), 681–698.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2010.497451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Esposito, A. G., Baker-Ward, L., & Mueller, S. T. (2013). Interference suppression vs. response inhibition: An explanation for the absence of a bilingual advantage in preschoolers’ Stroop task performance. Cognitive Development, 28(4), 354–363.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2013.09.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Bates, E., Thal, D. J., Pethick, S. J., … Stiles, J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5), i–i185.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1166093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fitzpatrick, C., & Pagani, L. S. (2012). Toddler working memory skills predict kindergarten school readiness. Intelligence, 40(2), 205–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2011.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fuhs, M. W., & Day, J. D. (2011). Verbal ability and executive functioning development in preschoolers at Head Start. Developmental Psychology, 47(2), 404–416.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021065.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fuhs, M. W., Nesbitt, K. T., Farran, D. C., & Dong, N. (2014). Longitudinal associations between executive functioning and academic skills across content areas. Developmental Psychology, 50(6), 1698–1709.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036633.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gkaintartzi, A., Chatzidaki, A., & Tsokalidou, R. (2014). Albanian parents and the Greek educational context: Who is willing to fight for the home language? International Multilingual Research Journal, 8(4), 291–308.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2014.953004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gleason, J. B., & Ratner, N. B. (2009). The development of language (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  57. Gomez, C. J., & Yoshikawa, H. (2017). Earthquake effects: Estimating the relationship between exposure to the 2010 Chilean earthquake and preschool children’s early cognitive and executive function skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 38, 127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Guttentag, C. L., Landry, S. H., Williams, J. M., Baggett, K. M., Noria, C. W., Borkowski, J. G., … Ramey, S. L. (2014). “My Baby & Me”: Effects of an early, comprehensive parenting intervention on at-risk mothers and their children. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1482–1496.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035682.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Halle, T. G., Whittaker, J. V., Zepeda, M., Rothenberg, L., Anderson, R., Daneri, P., … Buysse, V. (2014). The social–emotional development of dual language learners: Looking back at existing research and moving forward with purpose. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 734–749.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hamers, J. F., & Blanc, M. (2000). Bilinguality and bilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Han, W.-J. (2010). Bilingualism and socioemotional well-being. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(5), 720–731.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harman, C., Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (1997). Distress and attention interactions in early infancy. Motivation and Emotion, 21(1), 27–43.Google Scholar
  63. Hendry, A., Jones, E. J. H., & Charman, T. (2016). Executive function in the first three years of life: Precursors, predictors and patterns. Developmental Review, 42, 1–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2016.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hernandez, D. J., & Napierala, J. S. (2012). Children in immigrant families: Essential to America’s future (p. 38). New York: Foundation for Child Development.Google Scholar
  65. Hoff, E. (2006). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26(1), 55–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2005.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoff, E., Burridge, A., Ribot, K. M., & Giguere, D. (2017). Language specificity in the relation of maternal education to bilingual children’s vocabulary growth. Developmental Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Señor, M., & Parra, M. (2012). Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39(01), 1–27.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000910000759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Iluz-Cohen, P., & Armon-Lotem, S. (2013). Language proficiency and executive control in bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 884–899.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jacob, R., & Parkinson, J. (2015). The potential for school-based interventions that target executive function to improve academic achievement: A review. Review of Educational Research, 85(4), 512–552.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654314561338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jones, L., Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (2003). Development of executive attention in preschool children. Developmental Science, 6(5), 498–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jones, S. M., Bailey, R., Barnes, S. P., & Partee, A. (2016). Executive function mapping project: Untangling the terms and skills related to executive function and self-regulation in early childhood (No. OPRE 2016-88). Washington, D.C.: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  72. Jones, S. M., Bailey, R., & Jacob, R. (2014). Social-emotional learning is essential to classroom management. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(2), 19–24.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721714553405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jones, S. M., & Bouffard, S. M. (2012). Social and emotional learning in schools: From programs to strategies. Society for Research in Child Development, 26(4), 1–32.Google Scholar
  74. Jones, S. M., Bub, K. L., & Raver, C. C. (2013). Unpacking the Black Box of the Chicago School Readiness Project Intervention: The mediating roles of teacher–child relationship quality and self-regulation. Early Education & Development, 24(7), 1043–1064.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2013.825188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Karatsareas, P. (2018). Attitudes towards Cypriot Greek and Standard Modern Greek in London’s Greek Cypriot community. International Journal of Bilingualism.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006918762158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kochanska, G., & Knaack, A. (2004). Effortful control as a personality characteristic of young children: Antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1087–1112.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7106008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36(2), 220–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kuhl, P. K. (2015). Baby talk. Scientific American, 313(5), 64–69.  https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1115-64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kuhn, L. J., Willoughby, M. T., Vernon-Feagans, L., Blair, C. B., & The, F. L. P., Key Investigators. (2016). The contribution of children’s time-specific and longitudinal expressive language skills on developmental trajectories of executive function. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 148, 20–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.03.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kuhn, L. J., Willoughby, M. T., Wilbourn, M. P., Vernon-Feagans, L., & Blair, C. B. (2014). Early communicative gestures prospectively predict language development and executive function in early childhood. Child Development, 85(5), 1898–1914.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12249.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., & Swank, P. R. (2006). Responsive parenting: Establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 627–642.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.4.627.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., & Guttentag, C. (2008). A responsive parenting intervention: The optimal timing across early childhood for impacting maternal behaviors and child outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 44(5), 1335–1353.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013030.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Lengua, L. (2009). Effortful control in the context of socioeconomic and psychosocial risk. Psychological Science Agenda.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Liew, J. (2012). Effortful control, executive functions, and education: Bringing self-regulatory and social-emotional competencies to the table. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lonigan, C. J., Allan, D. M., Goodrich, J. M., Farrington, A. L., & Phillips, B. M. (2017). Inhibitory control of Spanish-speaking language-minority preschool children: Measurement and association with language, literacy, and math skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 50(4), 373–385.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219415618498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lu, Y., He, Q., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2018). Diverse experience of immigrant children: How do separation and reunification shape their sevelopment? Child Development.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Luchtel, M., Hughes, K., Luze, G., Bruna, K. R., & Peterson, C. (2010). A comparison of teacher-rated classroom conduct, social skills, and teacher–child relationship quality between preschool English learners and preschool English speakers. NHSA Dialog, 13(2), 92–111.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15240751003737877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mancilla-Martinez, J., Greenfader, C. M., & Ochoa, W. (2018). Spanish-speaking preschoolers’ conceptual vocabulary knowledge: Towards more comprehensive assessment. NHSA Dialog, 21(1), 22–49.Google Scholar
  89. Marti, M., Melvin, S., Noble, K. G., & Duch, H. (2018). Intervention fidelity of Getting Ready for School: Associations with classroom and teacher characteristics and preschooler’s school readiness skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 44, 55–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.02.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Masur, E. F. (1983). Gestural development, dual-directional signaling, and the transition to words. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 12(2), 93–109.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01067406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2012). Self-regulation in early childhood: Improving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43(4), 947–959.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.4.947.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. McClelland, M. M., & Wanless, S. B. (2012). Growing up with assets and risks: The importance of self-regulation for academic achievement. Research in Human Development, 9(4), 278–297.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2012.729907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McCoy, D. C. (2013). Early violence exposure and self-regulatory development: A bioecological systems perspective. Human Development, 56(4), 254–273.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000353217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Méndez, L. I., Crais, E. R., Castro, D. C., & Kainz, K. (2015). A culturally and linguistically responsive vocabulary approach for young Latino dual language learners. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(1), 93–106.  https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-12-0221.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Miller, S. E., & Marcovitch, S. (2015). Examining executive function in the second year of life: Coherence, stability, and relations to joint attention and language. Developmental Psychology, 51(1), 101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mills, B., Dyer, N., Pacheco, D., Brinkley, D., Owen, M. T., & Caughy, M. O. (2018). Developmental transactions between self-regulation and academic achievement among low-income African American and Latino children. Child Development.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13091.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America, 108(7), 2693–2698.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1010076108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Montroy, J. J., Bowles, R. P., Skibbe, L. E., & Foster, T. D. (2014). Social skills and problem behaviors as mediators of the relationship between behavioral self-regulation and academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(3), 298–309.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., Hammer, C. S., & Maczuga, S. (2015). 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies display greater academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Child Development, 86(5), 1351–1370.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Morrison, F. M., Ponitz, C. C., & McClelland, M. M. (2010). Self-regulation and academic achievement in the transition to school. In S. D. Calkins & M. A. Bell (Eds.), Child development at the intersection of emotion and cognition (pp. 203–224). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  102. National Early Literacy Panel. (2008). Developing early literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel (p. 260). National Institute for Literacy and National Center for Family Literacy. Retrieved from https://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/NELPReport09.pdf.
  103. Nazzi, T., Bertoncini, J., & Mehler, J. (1998). Language discrimination by newborns: Toward an understanding of the role of rhythm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24(3), 756–766.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.24.3.756.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Nesbitt, K. T., Baker-Ward, L., & Willoughby, M. T. (2013). Executive function mediates socio-economic and racial differences in early academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 774–783.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.07.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Neville, H. J., Stevens, C., Pakulak, E., Bell, T. A., Fanning, J., Klein, S., & Isbell, E. (2013). Family-based training program improves brain function, cognition, and behavior in lower socioeconomic status preschoolers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America, 110(29), 12138–12143.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1304437110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2005). Pathways to reading: The role of oral language in the transition to reading. Developmental Psychology, 41(2), 428–442.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.41.2.428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nigg, J. T. (2000). On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: Views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy. Psychological Bulletin, 126(2), 220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Noble, K. G., Norman, M. F., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Developmental Science, 8(1), 74–87.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00394.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Oades-Sese, G. V., & Li, Y. (2011). Attachment relationships as predictors of language skills for at-risk bilingual preschool children. Psychology in the Schools, 48(7), 707–722.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ogbu, J. U., & Simons, H. D. (1998). Voluntary and involuntary minorities: A cultural-ecological theory of school performance with some implications for education. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 29(2), 155–188.  https://doi.org/10.1525/aeq.1998.29.2.155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Oller, D. K., Pearson, B. Z., & Cobo-Lewis, A. B. (2007). Profile effects in early bilingual language and literacy. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(2), 191–230.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407070117.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Palermo, F., Mikulski, A. M., & Conejo, L. D. (2017). Self-regulation abilities and Spanish-speaking preschoolers’ vocabulary and letter-word skills in Spanish and English. Early Education and Development, 28(2), 207–223.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2016.1197670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pearson, B. Z., Fernandez, S. C., Lewedeg, V., & Oller, D. K. (1997). The relation of input factors to lexical learning by bilingual infants. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18(1), 41–58.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400009863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S. C., & Oller, D. K. (1993). Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms. Language Learning, 43(1), 93–120.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1993.tb00174.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Peña, E. D., Bedore, L. M., & Kester, E. S. (2016). Assessment of language impairment in bilingual children using semantic tasks: Two languages classify better than one. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 51(2), 192–202.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Petersen, I. T., Bates, J. E., & Staples, A. D. (2015). The role of language ability and self-regulation in the development of inattentive-hyperactive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 27(1), 221–237.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579414000698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Place, S., & Hoff, E. (2011). Properties of dual language exposure that influence 2-year-olds’ bilingual proficiency. Child Development, 82(6), 1834–1849.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01660.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. S., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 605–619.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Posner, M. I., Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., & Voelker, P. (2012). Control networks and neuromodulators of early development. Developmental Psychology, 48(3), 827–835.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Poulin-Dubois, D., Blaye, A., Coutya, J., & Bialystok, E. (2011). The effects of bilingualism on toddlers’ executive functioning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 567–579.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2010.10.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Raver, C. C., Jones, S. M., Li-Grining, C. P., Metzger, M., Champion, K. M., & Sardin, L. (2008). Improving preschool classroom processes: Preliminary findings from a randomized trial implemented in Head Start settings. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(1), 10–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rhoades, B. L., Greenberg, M. T., Lanza, S. T., & Blair, C. (2011). Demographic and familial predictors of early executive function development: Contribution of a person-centered perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 638–662.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2010.08.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Rothbart, M. K., Ellis, L. K., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2003). Developing mechanisms of temperamental effortful control. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1113–1144.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7106009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rowe, M. L. (2012). A longitudinal investigation of the role of quantity and quality of child-directed speech in vocabulary development. Child Development, 83(5), 1762–1774.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Salley, B., Sheinkopf, S. J., Neal-Beevers, A. R., Tenenbaum, E. J., Miller-Loncar, C. L., Tronick, E., … Lester, B. M. (2016). Infants’ early visual attention and social engagement as developmental precursors to joint attention. Developmental Psychology, 52(11), 1721–1731.  https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000205.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Salmon, K., O’Kearney, R., Reese, E., & Fortune, C. A. (2016). The role of language skill in child psychopathology: Implications for intervention in the early years. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19(4), 352–367.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-016-0214-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sameroff, A. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Development, 81(1), 6–22.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01378.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schmitt, S. A., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., & Acock, A. C. (2015). Strengthening school readiness for Head Start children: Evaluation of a self-regulation intervention. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 30, 20–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Segers, E., Damhuis, C. M. P., van de Sande, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2016). Role of executive functioning and home environment in early reading development. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 251–259.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2016.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sektnan, M., McClelland, M. M., Acock, A., & Morrison, F. J. (2010). Relations between early family risk, children’s behavioral regulation, and academic achievement. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(4), 464–479.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.02.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Sharkey, P. T. (2010). The acute effect of local homicides on children’s cognitive performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America, 107(26), 11733–11738.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1000690107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sharkey, P. T., Tirado-Strayer, N., Papachristos, A. V., & Raver, C. C. (2012). The effect of local violence on children’s attention and impulse control. American Journal of Public Health, 102(12), 2287–2293.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300789.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Smithson, L., Paradis, J., & Nicoladis, E. (2014). Bilingualism and receptive vocabulary achievement: Could sociocultural context make a difference? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(4), 810–821.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728913000813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Stoel-Gammon, C. (1998). Role of babbling and phonology in early linguistic development. In A. M. Wetherby, S. F. Warren & J. Reichle (Eds.), Transitions in prelinguistic communication (pp. 87–110) Baltimore: PHBrookes Pub.Google Scholar
  135. Surrain, S., & Luk, G. (2017). Describing bilinguals: A systematic review of labels and descriptions used in the literature between 2005–2015. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728917000682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Thomas-Sunesson, D., Hakuta, K., & Bialystok, E. (2018). Degree of bilingualism modifies executive control in Hispanic children in the USA. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(2), 197–206.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1148114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(05), 675–691.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X05000129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Trentacosta, C. J., & Izard, C. E. (2007). Kindergarten children’s emotion competence as a predictor of their academic competence in first grade. Emotion, 7(1), 77–88.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.7.1.77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. U.S. Department of Education. (2011). The growing number of English learner students, 1998/99-2008/09. Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA).Google Scholar
  140. Valiente, C., Eisenberg, N., Haugen, R., Spinrad, T. L., Hofer, C., Liew, J., & Kupfer, A. (2011). Children’s effortful control and academic achievement: Mediation through social functioning. Early Education & Development, 22(3), 411–433.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2010.505259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Vallotton, C., & Ayoub, C. (2011). Use your words: The role of language in the development of toddlers’ self-regulation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(2), 169–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.09.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Velázquez, I. (2009). Intergenerational Spanish transmission in El Paso, Texas: Parental perceptions of cost/benefit. Spanish in Context, 6(1), 69–84.  https://doi.org/10.1075/sic.6.1.05vel.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vygotsky. (1986). Thought and language (Translation newly rev. and edited/by Alex Kozulin.). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  144. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  145. Wanless, S. B., McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., & Acock, A. C. (2011). The influence of demographic risk factors on children’s behavioral regulation in prekindergarten and kindergarten. Early Education and Development, 22(3), 461–488.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2011.536132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Weiland, C., Barata, M. C., & Yoshikawa, H. (2014). The co-occurring development of executive function skills and receptive vocabulary in preschool-aged children: A look at the direction of the developmental pathways. Infant and Child Development, 23(1), 4–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Weintraub, S., Dikmen, S. S., Heaton, R. K., Tulsky, D. S., Zelazo, P. D., Bauer, P. J., … Gershon, R. C. (2013). Cognition assessment using the NIH Toolbox. Neurology, 80(11 Suppl 3), S54–S64.  https://doi.org/10.1212/wnl.0b013e3182872ded.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Weizman, Z. O., & Snow, C. E. (2001). Lexical output as related to children’s vocabulary acquisition: Effects of sophisticated exposure and support for meaning. Developmental Psychology, 37(2), 265–279.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.37.2.265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. White, L. J., Alexander, A., & Greenfield, D. B. (2017). The relationship between executive functioning and language: Examining vocabulary, syntax, and language learning in preschoolers attending Head Start. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 164, 16–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.06.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. White, L. J., & Greenfield, D. B. (2017). Executive functioning in Spanish- and English-speaking head start preschoolers. Developmental Science, 20(1), 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Winsler, A., Burchinal, M. R., Tien, H.-C., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Espinosa, L., Castro, D. C., … De Feyter, J. (2014a). Early development among dual language learners: The roles of language use at home, maternal immigration, country of origin, and socio-demographic variables. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 750–764.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.02.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Winsler, A., Diaz, R. M., Atencio, D. J., McCarthy, E. M., & Chabay, L. A. (2000). Verbal self-regulation over time in preschool children at risk for attention and behavior problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(7), 875–886.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00675.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Winsler, A., Diaz, R. M., & Montero, I. (1997). The role of private speech in the transition from collaborative to independent task performance in young children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(1), 59–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90043-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Winsler, A., Kim, Y. K., & Richard, E. R. (2014b). Socio-emotional skills, behavior problems, and Spanish competence predict the acquisition of English among English language learners in poverty. Developmental Psychology, 50(9), 2242–2254.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Zayas, L. H., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Yoon, H., & Rey, G. N. (2015). The distress of citizen-children with detained and deported parents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(11), 3213–3223.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0124-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Zelazo, P. D., Müller, U., Frye, D., Marcovitch, S., Argitis, G., Boseovski, J., … Sutherland, A. (2003). The development of executive function in early childhood. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, i–151.Google Scholar
  157. Zhou, Q., Chen, S. H., & Main, A. (2012). Commonalities and differences in the research on children’s effortful control and executive function: A call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 112–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Harvard Graduate School of EducationCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations