Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 236–258 | Cite as

Distilling Common History and Practice Elements to Inform Dissemination: Hanf-Model BPT Programs as an Example

  • Laura A. Kaehler
  • Mary Jacobs
  • Deborah J. JonesEmail author


There is a shift in evidence-based practice toward an understanding of the treatment elements that characterize empirically supported interventions in general and the core components of specific approaches in particular. The evidence base for behavioral parent training (BPT) and the standard of care for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder), which frequently co-occur with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, are well established, yet an ahistorical, program-specific lens tells little regarding how leaders, University of Oregon Medical School, shaped the common practice elements of contemporary evidence-based BPT. Accordingly, this review summarizes the formative work of Hanf, as well as the core elements, evolution, and extensions of her work, represented in Community Parent Education (COPE; (Cunningham et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 36:1141–1159, 1995; Cunningham et al. in COPE, the community parent education program: large group community-based workshops for parents of 3- to 18-year-olds, COPE Works, Hamilton, 2009), Defiant Children (DC; (Barkley in Defiant children: a clinician’s manual for assessment and parent training, Guilford Press, New York, 1987; Barkley in Defiant children: a clinician’s manual for assessment and parent training, Guilford Press, New York, 2013), Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC; Forehand and McMahon in Helping the noncompliant child: a clinician’s guide to parent training, Guilford Press, New York, 1981; McMahon and Forehand in Helping the noncompliant child: family-based treatment for oppositional behavior, 2nd ed., Guilford Press, New York, 2003), Parentchild interaction therapy (PCIT; Eyberg and Robinson in J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 11:130–137, 1982. doi:10.1080/15374418209533076; Eyberg in Child Fam Behav Ther 10:33–46, 1988; Eyberg and Funderburk in Parent–child interaction therapy protocol, PCIT International, Gainesville, 2011), and the Incredible Years (IY; (Webster-Stratton in Behav Ther 12:634–642, 1981. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(81)80135-9; Webster-Stratton in J Pediatr Psychol 7:279–294, 1982. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/7.3.279; Webster-Stratton in The incredible years: parents and children series. Leader’s guide: preschool version of BASIC (ages 3–6 years, The Incredible Years, Seattle, 2008). Our goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of the evidence base for the Hanf-Model programs, rather our intention is to provide a template of sorts from which agencies and clinicians can make informed choices about how and why they are using one program versus another, as well as how to make inform flexible use one program or combination of practice elements across programs, to best meet the needs of child clients and their families. Clinical implications and directions for future work are discussed.


Hanf-Model Behavioral parent training Behavior Dissemination Practice elements Review 



Support for this project was provided by a Grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (R01MH100377). We are grateful to the memory of Dr. Constance Hanf, who continues to live on in the work she has inspired in her trainees and the generations of researchers and clinicians who have followed in their footsteps. We also extend our gratitude to Drs. David Reitman and Robert McMahon, who so effectively reminded us of the importance of honoring Dr. Hanf and all of our mentors, as well as Dr. Mark Roberts, who although entering retirement graciously took the time to share records of Dr. Hanf’s original work. Of course, this paper could not be possible without the authors of the contemporary Hanf-Model BPT programs, including Drs. Russell Barkley (DC), Charles Cunningham (COPE), Sheila Eyberg (PCIT), Carolyn Webster-Stratton (IYS), and Rex Forehand and Robert McMahon (HNC). They are stellar examples of scientist-practitioners who took what they learned in the context of clinical practice in order to profoundly impact the evolution of evidence-based practice in the treatment of children, adolescents, and their families.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants

This is a review paper and, therefore, includes human subjects research reported by other research groups, as well as research by the authors. For research conducted by the authors and previously reported elsewhere, all procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Additionally, informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the authors’ research reported here.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura A. Kaehler
    • 1
  • Mary Jacobs
    • 2
  • Deborah J. Jones
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Children’s Advocacy Services of Greater St. LouisUniversity of MissouriSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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