Advertisement

The Promotion of Self-Regulation Through Parenting Interventions

  • Matthew R. SandersEmail author
  • Trevor G. Mazzucchelli
Article

Abstract

The capacity for a parent to self-regulate their own performance is argued to be a fundamental process underpinning the maintenance of positive, nurturing, non-abusive parenting practices that promote good developmental and health outcomes in children. Deficits in self-regulatory capacity, which have their origins in early childhood, are common in many psychological disorders, and strengthening self-regulation skills is widely recognised as an important goal in many psychological therapies and is a fundamental goal in preventive interventions. Attainment of enhanced self-regulation skills enables individuals to gain a greater sense of personal control and mastery over their life. This paper illustrates how the self-regulatory principles can be applied to parenting and family-based interventions at the level of the child, parent, practitioner and organisation. The Triple P—Positive Parenting Program, which uses a self-regulatory model of intervention, is used as an example to illustrate the robustness and versatility of the self-regulation approach to all phases of the parent consultation process.

Keywords

Self-regulation Parenting Child behaviour 

References

  1. Allen, K. E., Hart, B. M., Buell, J. S., Harris, F. R., & Wolf, M. M. (1964). Effects of social reinforcement on isolate behavior of a nursery school child. Child Development, 35, 511–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 71–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avakame, E. F. (1998). Intergenerational transmission of violence, self-control, and conjugal violence: A comparative analysis of physical violence and psychological aggression. Violence and Victims, 13, 301–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Backer, T. E., Liberman, R. P., & Kuehnel, T. G. (1986). Dissemination and adoption of innovative psychosocial interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 111–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1977a). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behaviorial change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1977b). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 45–103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment of emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35, 205–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumeister, R. F., Heatherton, T. F., & Tice, D. M. (1994). Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bouchard, T. J, Jr. (2004). Genetic influence on human psychological traits: A survey. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 148–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campis, L., Lyman, R. D., & Prentice-Dunn, S. (1986). The parental locus of control scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15, 260–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2011). Self-regulation of action and affect. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed., pp. 3–21). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Chan, R. C. K., Shum, D., Toulopoulou, T., & Chen, E. Y. H. (2008). Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23, 201–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coleman, P. K., & Karraker, K. H. (2000). Parenting self-efficacy among mothers of school-age children: Conceptualisation, measurement, and correlates. Family Relations, 49, 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  18. Dadds, M. R., Schwartz, S., & Sanders, M. R. (1987). Marital discord and treatment outcome in the treatment of childhood conduct disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 396–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Luca, C. R., & Leventer, R. J. (2008). Developmental trajectories of executive functions across the lifespan. In V. Anderson & P. J. Anderson (Eds.), Executive functions and frontal lobes: A lifespan perspective (pp. 23–56). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  20. Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16, 939–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dumka, L. E., Stoerzinger, H. D., Jackson, K. M., & Roosa, M. W. (1996). Examination of the cross-cultural and cross-language equivalence of the parenting self-agency measure. Family Relations, 45, 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ebstein, R. P. (2006). The molecular genetic architecture of human personality: Beyond self-report questionnaires. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 427–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eisenberg, N. (2004). Prosocial and moral development in the family. In T. A. Thorkildsen & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Nurturing morality (pp. 119–135). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finkenauer, C., Engels, R. C. M. E., & Baumeister, R. F. (2005). Parenting behaviour and adolescent behavioural and emotional problems: The role of self-control. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 58–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fixsen, D. L., Blase, K. A., Naoom, S. F., & Wallace, F. (2009). Core implementation components. Research on Social Work Practice, 19, 531–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network.Google Scholar
  27. Foster, E. M., Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., & Shapiro, C. J. (2008). The costs of a public health infrastructure for delivering parenting and family support. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 493–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology, 6, 235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Kenworthy, L., & Barton, R. M. (2002). Profiles of everyday executive function in acquired developmental disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 121–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grant, A. M., & Schwartz, B. (2011). Too much of a good thing: The challenge and opportunity of the inverted U. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guimond, A. B., Wilcox, M. J., & Lamorey, S. G. (2008). The early intervention parenting self-efficacy scale (EIPSES): Scale construction and initial psychometric evidence. Journal of Early Intervention, 30, 295–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamilton, V. E., Matthews, J. M., & Crawford, S. B. (2013). Development and preliminary validation of a parenting self-regulation scale: “Me as a parent” (manuscript submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  34. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  35. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (1989). A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karoly, P. (1993). Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 23–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Karreman, A., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A. G., & Dekovic, M. (2008). Parenting, coparenting, and effortful control in preschoolers. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 30–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kashdan, T. B., & Rottenberg, J. (2010). Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 467–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kendall, P. C., & Braswell, L. (1982). Cognitive-behavioral self-control therapy for children: A components analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 672–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kendall, P. C., & Braswell, L. (1985). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for impulsive children. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  41. Kendall, P. C., & Wilcox, L. E. (1979). Self-control in children: Development of a rating scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 1020–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kendall, P. C., & Wilcox, L. E. (1980). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for impulsivity: Concrete versus conceptual training in non-self-controlled problem children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48(80–9), 1.Google Scholar
  43. Kendall, P. C., & Zupan, B. A. (1981). Individual versus group application of cognitive-behavioral self-control procedures with children. Behavior Therapy, 12, 344–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Knudsen, E. I., Heckman, J. J., Cameron, J. L., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2006). Economic, neurobiological, and behvioral perspectives on building America’s future workforce. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 10155–10162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Koole, S. L., van Dillen, L. F., & Sheppes, G. (2011). The self-regulation of emotion. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed., pp. 22–40). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Malott, R. (1988). Rule-governed behavior and behavioral anthropology. The Behavior Analyst, 11, 181–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Martell, C. R., Addis, M. E., & Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Depression in context: Strategies for guided action. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  50. Martell, C. R., Dimidjian, S., & Herman-Dunn, R. (2010). Behavioral activation for depression: A clinician’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  51. Mazzucchelli, T. G., Kane, R. T., & Rees, C. S. (2010). Behavioral activation interventions for well-being: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 105–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mezo, P. G. (2009). The Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS): Development of an adaptive self-regulatory coping skills instrument. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mihalopoulos, C., Sanders, M. R., Turner, K. M. T., Murphy-Brennan, M., & Carter, R. (2007). Does the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program provide value for money? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 239–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Peake, P. K. (1988). The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 687–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2693–2698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Muraven, M., Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (1999). Longitudinal improvement of self-regulation through practice: Building self-control strength through repeated exercise. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 446–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nezu, A. M. (1986). Efficacy of a social problem-solving therapy approach for unipolar depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 196–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nowak, C., & Heinrichs, N. (2008). A comprehensive meta-analysis of Triple P—Positive Parenting Program using hierarchical linear modeling: Effectiveness and moderating variables. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11, 114–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Papies, E. K., & Aarts, H. (2011). Nonconscious self-regulation, or the automatic pilot of human behavior. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed., pp. 125–142). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Patterson, G. R., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). A functional analysis of resistance during parent training therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1, 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The US Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10, 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rehm, L. P. (1977). A self-control model of depression. Behavior Therapy, 8, 787–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Robin, A. L., Fischel, J. E., & Brown, K. E. (1984). The measurement of self-control in children: Validation of the Self-control Rating Scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 9, 165–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rohrbeck, C. A., Azar, S. T., & Wagner, P. E. (1991). Child Self-Control Rating Scale: Validation of a child self-report measure. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 179–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sanders, M. R. (1998). The empirical status of psychological interventions with families of children and adolescents. In L. L’Abate (Ed.), Family psychopathology: The relational roots of dysfunctional behavior (pp. 427–465). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  66. Sanders, M. R. (1999). Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: Towards an empirically validated multilevel parenting and family support strategy for the prevention of behavior and emotional problems in children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 71–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sanders, M. R. (2008). Triple P—Positive Parenting Program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 506–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sanders, M. R., Baker, S., & Turner, K. M. T. (2012a). A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of Triple P Online with parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 675–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sanders, M. R., & Glynn, E. L. (1981). Training parents in behavioral self-management: An analysis of generalization and maintenance effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 223–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sanders, M. R., & Lawton, J. (1993). Discussing assessment findings with families: The guided participation model of information transfer. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 15, 5–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sanders, M. R., Mazzucchelli, T. G., & Ralph, A. (2012b). Promoting parenting competence through a self-regulation approach to feedback. In R. M. Sutton, M. J. Hornsey, & K. M. Douglas (Eds.), Feedback: The communication of praise, criticism, and advice (pp. 305–321). New York, NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  72. Sanders, M. R., & McFarland, M. (2000). Treatment of depressed mothers with disruptive children: A controlled evaluation of cognitive behavioral family intervention. Behavior Therapy, 31, 89–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sanders, M. R., McGee, E., Loureiro, T., & Murphy, M. (2013). Peer-Assisted Supervision and Support (PASS): Peer support and self-regulation training to promote effective implementation of evidence-based parenting interventions (manuscript in preparation).Google Scholar
  74. Sanders, M. R., Murphy-Brennan, M., & McAuliffe, C. (2003). The development, evaluation and dissemination of a training program for general practitioners in evidence-based parent consultation skills. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 5(4), 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sanders, M. R., Prinz, R. J., & Shapiro, C. J. (2009). Predicting utilization of evidence-based parenting interventions with organizational, service-provider and client variables. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 36, 133–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sanders, M. R., Ralph, A., Sofronoff, K., Gardiner, P., Thompson, R., Dwyer, S., et al. (2008). Every family: A population approach to reducing behavioral and emotional problems in children making the transition to school. Journal of Primary Prevention, 29, 197–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sanders, M. R., & Turner, K. M. T. (2005). Reflections on the challenges of effective dissemination of behavioural family intervention: Our experience with the Triple P—Positive Parenting Program. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 10, 158–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sanders, M. R., Turner, K. M. T., & Markie-Dadds, C. (1998). Practitioner’s manual for enhanced Triple P. Brisbane: Families International Publishing.Google Scholar
  79. Sanders, M. R., & Woolley, M. L. (2005). The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: Implications for parent training. Care, Health and Child, Development, 31, 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Senn, T. E., Espy, K. A., & Kaufmann, P. M. (2004). Using path analysis to understand executive function organization in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 445–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shoda, Y., Mischel, W., & Peake, P. K. (1990). Predicting adolescent cognitive and self-regulatory competencies from preschool delay of gratification: Identifying diagnostic conditions. Developmental Psychology, 26, 978–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smart, D., Richardson, N., Sanson, A., Dussuyer, I., Marshall, B., Toumbourou, J. W., et al. (2005). Patterns and precursors to adolescent antisocial behaviour: Outcomes and connections. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.Google Scholar
  83. Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(2), 349–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., Arseneault, L., & Niscale, M. J. (1995). Does low self-control during childhood explain the association between delinquency and accidents in early adolescence? Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 5, 439–451.Google Scholar
  86. Tsukayama, E., Toomey, S. L., Faith, M. S., & Duckworth, A. L. (2010). Self-control as a protective factor against overweight status in the transition from childhood to adolescence. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 164, 631–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Valiente, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K., & Reiser, M. (2007). Pathways to problem behaviors: Chaotic homes, parent and child effortful control, and parenting. Social Development, 16, 249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Webster-Stratton, C. (1998). Preventing conduct problems in head start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 715–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Webster-Stratton, C., & Taylor, T. K. (1998). Adopting and implementing empirically supported interventions: A recipe for success. In A. Buchanan & B. L. Hudson (Eds.), Parenting, schooling and children’s behaviour: Interdisciplinary approaches (pp. 127–160). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  90. Zubrick, S. R., Ward, K., Silburn, S. R., Lawrence, D., Williams, A. A., Blair, E., et al. (2005). Prevention of child behavior problems through universal implementation of a group behavioral family intervention. Prevention Science, 6, 287–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Parenting and Family Support CentreThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of Psychology and Speech PathologyCurtin UniversityBentleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations