Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 144–162

Family Factors in the Development, Treatment, and Prevention of Childhood Anxiety Disorders

Article

Abstract

It is now widely accepted that anxiety disorders run in families, and current etiological models have proposed both genetic and environmental pathways to anxiety development. In this paper, the familial role in the development, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders in children is reviewed. We focus on three anxiety disorders in youth, namely, generalized, separation, and social anxiety as they often co-occur both at the symptom and disorder level and respond to similar treatments. We begin by presenting an overview of a broad range of family factors associated with anxiety disorders. Findings from these studies have informed intervention and prevention strategies that are discussed next. Throughout the paper we shed light on the challenges that plague this research and look toward the future by proposing directions for much needed study and discussing factors that may improve clinical practice and outcomes for affected youth and their families.

Keywords

Children Anxiety Family Parenting Treatment Prevention 

References

  1. Affrunti, N. W., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2011). Maternal overcontrol and child anxiety: The mediating role of perceived competence. Child Psychiatry and Human Development,. doi:10.1007/s10578-011-0248-z.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber, B. K., & Buehler, C. (1996). Family cohesion and enmeshment: Different constructs, different effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 433–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bar-Haim, Y., Dan, O., Eshel, Y., & Sagi-Schwartz, A. (2007). Predicting children’s anxiety from early attachment relationships. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 1061–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barmish, A. J., & Kendall, P. C. (2005). Should parents be co-clients in cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 569–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrett, P. M., Fox, T., & Farrell, L. J. (2005). Parent-child interactions with anxious children and with their siblings: An observational study. Behaviour Change, 22, 220–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrett, P. M., Rapee, R. M., Dadds, M. R., & Ryan, S. (1996). Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 187–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, K. D., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2011). Maternal anxiety, behaviors, and expectations during a behavioral task: Relation to children’s self-evaluations. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 320–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., Hofler, M., Lieb, R., et al. (2007). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 903–912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beesdo, K., Pine, D. S., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H. (2010). Incidence and risk patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders and categorization of generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 47–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (1997). At risk for anxiety: I. Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 918–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ben-David, A., & Jurich, J. (1993). A test of adaptability: Examining the curvilinear assumption. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 370–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berman, S. L., Weems, C. F., Silverman, W. K., & Kurtines, W. M. (2000). Predictors of outcome in exposure-based cognitive and behavioral treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in children. Behavior Therapy, 31, 713–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernstein, G. A., Warren, S. L., Massie, E. D., & Thuras, P. D. (1999). Family dimensions in anxious-depressed school refusers. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 513–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Marrs, A., Moore, P., Garcia, J., Ablon, S., et al. (1997). Panic disorder and agoraphobia in consecutively referred children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 214–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hérot, C., Friedman, D., et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1673–1679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Bolduc, E. A., Faraone, S. V., & Hirshfeld, D. R. (1991). A high risk study of young children of parents with panic disorder and agoraphobia with and without comorbid major depression. Psychiatry Research, 37, 333–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bittner, A., Egger, H. L., Erkanli, A., Costello, E. J., Foley, D. L., & Angold, A. (2007). What do childhood anxiety disorders predict? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1174–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bodden, D. H. M., Bögels, S. M., Nauta, M. H., De Haan, E., RIingrose, J., Appelboom, C., et al. (2008). Child versus family cognitive-behavioral therapy in clinically anxious youth: An efficacy and partial effectiveness study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1384–1394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boden, J. M., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2007). Anxiety disorders and suicidal behaviours in adolescence and young adulthood: Findings from a longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 37, 431–440.Google Scholar
  22. Bögels, S. M., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. (2006). Family issues in child anxiety: Attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 834–856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bögels, S., & Phares, V. (2008). Fathers’ role in the etiology, prevention and treatment of child anxiety: A review and new model. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 539–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bögels, S. M., van Dongen, L., & Muris, P. (2003). Family influences on dysfunctional thinking in anxious children. Journal of Infant and Child Development, 12, 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bögels, S. M., & van Melick, M. (2004). The relationship between child-report, parent self-report, and partner report of perceived parental rearing behaviors and anxiety in children and parents. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1583–1596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bögels, S. M., van Oosten, A., Muris, P., & Smulders, D. (2001). Familial correlates of social anxiety in children and adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 273–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bohlin, G., Hagekull, B., & Rydell, A. (2000). Attachment and social functioning: A longitudinal study from infancy to middle childhood. Social Development, 9, 24–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  29. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Volume 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  30. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2008). Mother–child attachment and social anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 393–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2010). Parent-child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 177–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Buehler, C., Anthony, C., Krishnakumar, A., & Stone, G. (1997). Interparental conflict and youth problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Buhrmester, D., Boer, F., & Dunn, J. (1992). The developmental courses of sibling and peer relationships. In Children’s sibling relationships: Developmental and clinical issues. (pp. 19-40). Hillsdale, NJ England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  34. Burstein, M., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2010). The effect of parental modeling of anxious behaviors and cognitions in school-aged children: An experimental pilot study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 506–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cannon, M. F., & Weems, C. F. (2010). Cognitive biases in childhood anxiety disorders: Do interpretive and judgment biases distinguish anxious youth from their non-anxious peers? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 751–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Capps, L., Sigman, M., Sena, R., & Henker, B. (1996). Fear, anxiety, and perceived control in children of agoraphobic parents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 445–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cartwright-Hatton, S., McNally, D., & White, C. (2005). A new cognitive behavioural parenting intervention for families of young anxious children: A pilot study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33, 243–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cassidy, J., & Berlin, L. J. (1994). The insecure/ambivalent pattern of attachment: Theory and research. Child Development, 65, 971–981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Caster, J. B., Inderbitzen, H. M., & Hope, D. A. (1999). Relationship between youth and parent perceptions of family environment and social anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 237–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chavira, D. A., Garland, A. F., Daley, S., & Hough, R. (2008). The impact of medical comorbidity on mental health and functional health outcomes among children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 394–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Choate, M. L., Pincus, D. B., Eyberg, S. M., & Barlow, D. H. (2005). Parent-child interaction therapy for treatment of separation anxiety disorder in young children: A pilot study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 12, 126–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chorpita, B. F., Albano, A. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Cognitive processing in children: Relation to anxiety and family influences. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 170–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., et al. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 928–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cobham, V. E., Dadds, M. R., & Spence, S. H. (1998). The role of parental anxiety in the treatment of childhood anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 893–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cobham, V. E., Dadds, M. R., & Spence, S. H. (1999). Anxious children and their parents: What do they expect? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 220–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Colonnesi, C., Draijer, E. M., Jan, J. M., Stams, G., Van der Bruggen, C. O., Bögels, S. M., et al. (2011). The relation between insecure attachment and child anxiety: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 630–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Costello, E. J., Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2004). Developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders. In T. H. Ollendick & J. S. March (Eds.), Phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A clinician’s guide to effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions (pp. 61–91). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Costello, E. J., Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2005). The developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders: Phenomenology, prevalence, and comorbidity. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 631–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Crawford, A. M., & Manassis, K. (2001). Familial predictors of treatment outcome in childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1182–1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Crawford, A., & Manassis, K. (2011). Anxiety, social skills, friendship quality, and peer victimization: An integrated model. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 924–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Creswell, C., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2007). Family treatment of child anxiety: Outcomes, limitations and future directions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 232–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Creswell, C., O’Connor, T. G., & Brewin, C. R. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of maternal and child ‘anxious cognitions’. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and children’s functioning. Social Development, 3, 16–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cummings, E. M., Goeke-Morey, M. C., & Papp, L. M. (2003). Children’s responses to everyday marital conflict tactics in the home. Child Development, 74, 1918–1929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cummings, J. S., Pellegrini, D. S., Notarius, C. I., & Cummings, E. (1989). Children’s responses to angry adult behavior as a function of marital distress and history of interparent hostility. Child Development, 60, 1035–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dadds, M. R., Atkinson, E., Turner, C., Blums, G. J., & Lendich, B. (1999). Family conflict and child adjustment: Evidence for a cognitive-contextual model of intergenerational transmission. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 194–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dadds, M. R., Barrett, P. M., Rapee, R. M., & Ryan, S. (1996). Family process and child anxiety and aggression: An observational analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 715–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dadds, M. R., Spence, S. H., Holland, D. E., Barrett, P. M., & Laurens, K. R. (1997). Prevention and early intervention for anxiety disorders: A controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 627–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. de Rosnay, M., Cooper, P. J., Tsigaras, N., & Murray, L. (2006). Transmission of social anxiety from mother to infant: An experimental study using a social referencing paradigm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1165–1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dilalla, L. F., Kagan, J., & Reznick, J. S. (1994). Genetic etiology of behavioral inhibition among 2-year-old children. Infant Behavior and Development, 17, 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Doyle, A., & Markiewicz, D. (2005). Parenting, marital conflict and adjustment from early- to mid-adolescence: Mediated by adolescent attachment style? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Drake, K. L., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2011). Parenting practices of anxious and non-anxious mothers: A multi-method multi-informant approach. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 33, 299–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dumas, J. E., LaFreniere, P. J., & Serketich, W. J. (1995). ‘Balance of power’: A transactional analysis of control in mother-child dyads involving socially competent, aggressive, and anxious children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 104–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dunn, J., Slomkowski, C., & Beardsall, L. (1994a). Sibling relationships from the preschool period through middle childhood and early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 30, 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dunn, J., Slomkowski, C., Beardsall, L., & Rende, R. (1994b). Adjustment in middle childhood and early adolescence: Links with earlier and contemporary sibling relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 491–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. D’Zurilla, T. J., & Goldfried, M. R. (1971). Problem solving and behavior modification. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, 107–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Edison, S. C., Evans, M., McHolm, A. E., Cunningham, C. E., Nowakowski, M. E., Boyle, M., et al. (2011). An investigation of control among parents of selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 270–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Edwards, S. L., Rapee, R. M., & Kennedy, S. (2010). Prediction of anxiety symptoms in preschool-aged children: Examination of maternal and paternal perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 313–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Eley, T. C., & Gregory, A. M. (2004). Behavioral genetics. In J. S. March (Ed.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 71–97). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  70. Emery, R. E. (1989). Family violence. American Psychologist, 44, 321–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Festa, C. C., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2011). Parental and peer predictors of social anxiety in youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 291–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Fisak, B., Jr, & Grills-Taquechel, A. (2007). Parental modeling, reinforcement, and information transfer: Risk factors in the development of child anxiety? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 213–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Fox, T. L., Barrett, P. M., & Shortt, A. L. (2002). Sibling relationships of anxious children: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 375–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Francis, S. E., & Chorpita, B. F. (2011). Parental beliefs about child anxiety as a mediator of parent and child anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gerull, F. C., & Rapee, R. M. (2002). Mother knows best: The effects of maternal modelling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance behaviour in toddlers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 279–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ginsburg, G. (2009). The child anxiety prevention study: Intervention model and primary outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 580–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ginsburg, G. S., Grover, R. L., & Ialongo, N. (2004). Parenting behaviors among anxious and non-anxious mothers: Relation with concurrent and long-term child outcomes. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26, 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ginsburg, G. S., Kendall, P. C., Sakolsky, D., Compton, S. N., Piacentini, J., Albano, A. M., et al. (2011). Remission after acute treatment in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders: Findings from the CAMS. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 806–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ginsburg, G. S., & Schlossberg, M. C. (2002). Family-based treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. International Review of Psychiatry, 14, 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ginsburg, G. S., Silverman, W. K., & Kurtines, W. K. (1995). Family involvement in treating children with phobic and anxiety disorders: A look ahead. Clinical Psychology Review, 15, 457–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Greco, L. A., & Morris, T. L. (2004). Assessment. In T. L. Morris & J. S. March (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 98–121). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  82. Greenberg, P. E., Sisitsky, T., Kessler, R. C., Finkelstein, S. N., Berndt, E. R., Davidson, J. R. T., et al. (1999). The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 427–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Koenen, K., Eley, T. C., & Poulton, R. (2007). Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 301–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gregory, A. M., & Eley, T. C. (2007). Genetic influences on anxiety in children: What we’ve learned and where we’re heading. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 199–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Grüner, K., Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (1999). The relationship between anxious rearing behaviours and anxiety disorders symptomatology in normal children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 30, 27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Grych, J. H., Fincham, F. D., Jouriles, E. N., & McDonald, R. (2000). Interparental conflict and child adjustment: Testing the mediational role of appraisals in the cognitive-contextual framework. Child Development, 71, 1648–1661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Guberman, C., & Manassis, K. (2011). Symptomatology and family functioning in children and adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20, 186–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hadwin, J. A., Garner, M., & Perez-Olivas, G. (2006). The development of information processing biases in childhood: A review and exploration of its origin in parenting. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 876–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Henderson, R. (1980). Parent-child interaction: Theory, research, and prospects. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  90. Hibbs, E. D., Hamburger, S. D., Kruesi, M. J., & Lenane, M. (1993). Factors affecting expressed emotion in parents of ill and normal children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 103–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Biederman, J., Henin, A., Faraone, S. V., Davis, S., Harrington, K., et al. (2007). Behavioral inhibition in preschool children at risk is a specific predictor of middle childhood social anxiety: A five-year follow-up. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 28, 225–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Howes, P., & Markman, H. J. (1989). Marital quality and child functioning: A longitudinal investigation. Child Development, 60, 1044–1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hudson, J. L. (2005). Interparental conflict, violence and psychopathology. In J. L. Hudson & R. M. Rapee (Eds.), Psychopathology and the family (pp. 53–69). New York, NY: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  94. Hudson, J. L., Dodd, H. F., & Bovopoulos, N. (2011). Temperament, family environment and anxiety in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9502-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hudson, J., Doyle, A. M., & Gar, N. (2009). Child and maternal influence on parenting behavior in clinically anxious children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 256–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2001). Parent–child interactions and anxiety disorders: An observational study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1411–1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2002). Parent-child interactions in clinically anxious children and their siblings. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 548–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Hughes, A. A., Hedtke, K. A., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). Family functioning in families of children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 325–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. In-Albon, T., & Schneider, S. (2006). Psychotherapy of childhood anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. James, A., Soler, A., & Weatherall, R. (2005). Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4:CD004690.Google Scholar
  101. Jarrett, M. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2008). A conceptual review of the comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety: Implications for future research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1266–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jekielek, S. M. (1998). Parental conflict, marital disruption and children’s emotional well-being. Social Forces, 76, 905–936.Google Scholar
  103. Johnson, H. S., Inderbitzen-Nolan, H. M., & Schapman, A. M. (2005). A comparison between socially anxious and depressive symptomatology in youth: A focus on perceived family environment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 423–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Jouriles, E. N., Spiller, L. C., Stephens, N., McDonald, R., & Swank, P. (2000). Variability in adjustment of children of battered women: The role of child appraisals of interparent conflict. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24, 233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., Clarke, C., Snidman, N., & Garcia-Coll, C. (1984). Behavioural inhibition to the unfamiliar. Child Development, 55, 2212–2225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Katz, L. F., & Low, S. M. (2004). Marital violence, co-parenting, and family-level processes in relation to children’s adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 372–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kendall, P. C. (1994). Treating anxiety disorders in children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 100–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kendall, P. C., Chu, B. C., Pimentel, S. S., & Choudhury, M. (2000). Treating anxiety disorders in youth. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Child & adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures (2nd ed., pp. 235–287). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  109. Kendall, P. C., Hudson, J. L., Gosch, E., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Suveg, C. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disordered youth: A randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 282–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kennedy, S. J., Rapee, R. M., & Edwards, S. L. (2009). A selective intervention program for inhibited preschool-aged children of parents with an anxiety disorder: Effects on current anxiety disorders and temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 602–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kepley, H. O., & Ostrander, R. (2007). Family characteristics of anxious ADHD children: Preliminary results. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10, 317–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Khanna, M. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for child anxiety: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 737–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kim, J.-Y., McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., & Osgood, D. W. (2007). Longitudinal linkages between sibling relationships and adjustment from middle childhood through adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 960–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kortlander, E., Kendall, P. C., & Panichelli-Mindel, S. (1997). Maternal expectations and attributions about coping in anxious children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 297–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kovacs, M., & Devlin, B. (1998). Internalizing disorders in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 47–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Last, C. G., Hersen, M., Kazdin, A. E., & Francis, G. (1987). Psychiatric illness in the mothers of anxious children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1580–1583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Last, C. G., Hersen, M., Kazdin, A. E., & Orvaschel, H. (1991). Anxiety disorders in children and their families. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 928–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Lau, J. Y. F., & Pine, D. S. (2008). Elucidating risk mechanisms of gene-environment interactions on pediatric anxiety: Integrating findings from neuroscience. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 258, 97–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Leong, J., Cobham, V. E., de Groot, J., & McDermott, B. (2009). Comparing different modes of delivery: A pilot evaluation of a family-focused, cognitive-behavioral intervention for anxiety-disordered children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 231–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lester, K. J., Field, A. P., Oliver, S., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2009). Do anxious parents interpretive biases towards threat extend into their child’s environment? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 170–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lieb, R., Wittchen, H., Höfler, M., Fuetsch, M., Stein, M. B., & Merikangas, K. R. (2000). Parental psychopathology, parenting styles, and the risk of social phobia in offspring: A prospective-longitudinal community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lindhout, I., Boer, F., Markus, M. T., Hoogendijk, T. H. G., Maingay, R., & Borst, S. R. (2003). Sibling relationships of anxiety disordered children—A research note. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 593–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lindhout, I., Markus, M., Borst, S., Hoogendijk, T., Dingemans, P., & Boer, F. (2009). Childrearing style in families of anxiety-disordered children: Between-family and within-family differences. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 197–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Livingston, R., Nugent, H., Rader, L., & Smith, G. R. (1985). Family histories of depressed and severely anxious children. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1497–1499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Manassis, K. (2001). Child–parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders. In W. K. Silverman & P. D. A. Treffers (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Research, assessment and intervention (pp. 255–272). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Manassis, K., & Bradley, S. J. (1994). The development of childhood anxiety disorders: Toward an integrated model. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 345–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Goldberg, S., & Hood, J. (1995). Behavioural inhibition, attachment and anxiety in children of mothers with anxiety disorders. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 87–92.Google Scholar
  129. Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Goldberg, S., Hood, J., & Swinson, R. P. (1994). Attachment in mothers with anxiety disorders and their children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1106–1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. McClure, E. B., Brennan, P. A., Hammen, C., & Le Brocque, R. M. (2001). Parental anxiety disorders, child anxiety disorders, and the perceived parent-child relationship in an Australian high-risk sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. McHale, J. P., & Rasmussen, J. L. (1998). Coparental and family group-level dynamics during infancy: Early family precursors of child and family functioning during preschool. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 39–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. McLeod, B. D., Weisz, J. R., & Wood, J. J. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 986–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Mechanic, D., & Hansell, S. (1989). Divorce, family conflict, and adolescents’ well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 105–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mendlowitz, S. L., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., & Shaw, B. F. (1999). Cognitive-behavioral group treatments in childhood anxiety disorders: The role of parental involvement. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1223–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Messer, S. C., & Beidel, D. C. (1994). Psychosocial correlates of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 975–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mian, N. D., Wainwright, L., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., & Carter, A. S. (2011). An ecological risk model for early childhood anxiety: The importance of early child symptoms and temperament. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 501–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Micco, J. A., & Ehrenreich, J. T. (2008). Children’s interpretation and avoidant response biases in response to non-salient and salient situations: Relationships with mothers’ threat perception and coping expectations. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 371–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Moore, P. S., Whaley, S. E., & Sigman, M. (2004). Interactions between mothers and children: Impacts of maternal and child anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 471–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  140. Muris, P., Mayer, B., & Meesters, C. (2000). Self-reported attachment style, anxiety, and depression in children. Social Behavior and Personality, 28, 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (1998). Perceived parental rearing behaviour and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal children. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 1199–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Muris, P., Steerneman, P., Merckelbach, H., & Meesters, C. (1996). The role of parental fearfulness and modeling in children’s fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 265–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Muris, P., van Brakel, A. L., Arntz, A., & Schouten, E. (2011). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for the development of childhood anxiety disorders: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 157–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Muroff, J., & Ross, A. (2011). Social disability and impairment in childhood anxiety. In D. McKay & E. A. Storch (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent anxiety disorders (pp. 457–478). New York, NY: Springer Science Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Nauta, M. H., Scholing, A., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., & Minderaa, R. B. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with anxiety disorders in a clinical setting: No additional effect of a cognitive parent training. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1270–1278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Nomura, Y., Wickramaratne, P. J., Warner, V., Mufson, L., & Weissman, M. M. (2002). Family discord, parental depression and psychopathology in offspring: Ten-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 402–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. O’Neil, K. A., Podell, J. L., Benjamin, C. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Comorbid depressive disorders in anxiety-disordered youth: Demographic, clinical, and family characteristics. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41, 330–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Orvaschel, H., Puig-Antich, J., Chambers, W., Tabrizi, M. A., & Johnson, R. (1982). Retrospective assessment of prepubertal major depression with the Kiddie-SADS-E. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 695–707.Google Scholar
  149. Peleg-Popko, O., & Dar, R. (2001). Marital quality, family patterns, and children’s fears and social anxiety. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 23, 465–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pfiffner, L. J., & McBurnett, K. (2006). Family correlates of comorbid anxiety disorders in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 725–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., Gurley, D., Brook, J., & Ma, Y. (1998). The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 56–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rapee, R. M. (1997). Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 46–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rapee, R. M. (2000). Group treatment of children with anxiety disorders: Outcome and predictors of treatment response. Australian Journal of Psychology, 52, 125–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Rapee, R. M. (2002). The development and modification of temperamental risk for anxiety disorders: Prevention of a lifetime of anxiety? Biological Psychiatry, 52, 947–957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rapee, R. M., Abbott, M. J., & Lyneham, H. J. (2006). Bibliotherapy for children with anxiety disorders using written materials for parents: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 436–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S., Ingram, M., Edwards, S., & Sweeney, L. (2005). Prevention and early intervention of anxiety disorders in inhibited preschool children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 488–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Reiss, S. (1987). Theoretical perspectives on the fear of anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 7, 585–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy theory of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11(141), 153.Google Scholar
  159. Reiss, S., & McNally, R. J. (1985). Expectancy model of fear. In S. Reiss & R. R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy (pp. 107–121). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  160. Rekart, K. N., Mineka, S., Zinbarg, R. E., & Griffith, J. W. (2007). Perceived family environment and symptoms of emotional disorders: The role of perceived control, attributional style, and attachment. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31, 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Robinson, J. L., Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Corley, R. (1992). The heritability of inhibited and uninhibited behavior: A twin study. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1030–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., Ter Huurne, M., Bamelis, L., & Muris, P. (2006). On the links between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Saudino, K. J., Cherny, S. S., & Plomin, R. (2000). Parent ratings of temperament in twins: Explaining the “too low” DZ correlations. Twin Research, 3, 224–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Shamir-Essakow, G., Ungerer, J. A., & Rapee, R. M. (2005). Attachment, behavioral inhibition, and anxiety in preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 131–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Shortt, A. L., Barrett, P. M., Dadds, M. R., & Fox, T. L. (2001). Evaluating the FRIENDS program: A cognitive-behavioral group treatment for anxious children and their parents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 525–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Silverman, W. K., & Pina, A. A. (2008). Psychosocial treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in youth. In R. G. Steele, T. D. Elkin, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of evidence-based therapies for children and adolescents: Bridging science and practice (pp. 65–82). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Silverman, W. K., Pina, A. A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 105–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Siqueland, L., Kendall, P. C., & Steinberg, L. (1996). Anxiety in children: perceived family environments and observed family interaction. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 225–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Siqueland, L., Rynn, M., & Diamond, G. S. (2005). Cognitive behavioral and attachment based family therapy for anxious adolescents: Phase I and II studies. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 361–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Smoller, J. W., Block, S. R., & Young, M. M. (2009). Genetics of anxiety disorders: The complex road from DSM to DNA. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 965–975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Southam-Gerow, M., Kendall, P. C., & Weersing, V. R. (2001). Examining outcome variability: Correlates of treatment response in a child and adolescent anxiety clinic. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 422–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Spence, S. H., Donovan, C., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. (2000). The treatment of childhood social phobia: The effectiveness of a social skills training-based, cognitive-behavioural intervention, with and without parental involvement. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 713–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Stark, K. D., Humphrey, L. L., Crook, K., & Lewis, K. (1990). Perceived family environments of depressed and anxious children: Child’s and maternal figure’s perspectives. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 527–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Stein, M. B., Jang, K. L., & Livesley, W. J. (1999). Heritability of anxiety sensitivity: A twin study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 246–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Stocker, C. M. (1994). Children’s perceptions of relationships with sibling, friends, and mothers: Compensatory processes and links with adjustment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1447–1459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Stocker, C. M., Burwell, R. A., & Briggs, M. L. (2002). Sibling conflict in middle childhood predicts children’s adjustment in early adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 50–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sundheim, S., & Voeller, K. (2004). Psychiatric implications of language disorders and learning disabilities: Risks and management. Journal of Child Neurology, 19, 814–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Suveg, C., Hudson, J. L., Brewer, G., Flannery-Schroeder, E., Gosch, E., & Kendall, P. C. (2009). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety-disordered youth: Secondary outcomes from a randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 341–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tanaka, A., Raishevich, N., & Scarpa, A. (2010). Family conflict and childhood aggression: The role of child anxiety. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25, 2127–2143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Teichman, Y., & Ziv, R. (1998). Grandparents’ and parents’ views about their family and children’s adjustment to kindergarten. Educational Gerontology, 24, 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Thapar, A., & McGuffin, P. (1996). A twin study of antisocial and neurotic symptoms in childhood. Psychological Medicine, 26, 1111–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Thienemann, M., Moore, P., & Tompkins, K. (2006). A parent-only group intervention for children with anxiety disorders: Pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disorders patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 229–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Turner, S., Beidel, D. C., & Wolff, P. L. (1996). Is behavioral inhibition related to the anxiety disorders? Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. van Brakel, Anna. M. L., Muris, P., Bögels, S. M., & Thomassen, C. (2006). A multifactorial model for the etiology of anxiety in non-clinical adolescents: Main and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition, attachment and parental rearing. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. van der Bruggen, B., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Bögels, S. M. (2008). Research review: The relation between child and parent anxiety and parental control: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1257–1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. van Oort, F. V. A., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Huizink, A. C. (2010). Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: The TRAILS study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 483–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Velting, O. N., Setzer, N. J., & Albano, A. M. (2002). Anxiety disorders. In D. T. Marsh & M. A. Fristad (Eds.), Handbook of serious emotional disturbance in children and adolescents (pp. 204–227). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  189. Volling, B. L. (2003). Sibling relationships. In L. D. M. H. Bornstein, C. L. M. Keyes, K. A. Moore, & The Center for Child Well-being (Ed.), Well-being: Positive development across the life course (pp. 205–220). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  190. Warren, S. L., Huston, L., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 637–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Waters, A. M., Craske, M. G., Bergman, R., & Treanor, M. (2008). Threat interpretation bias as a vulnerability factor in childhood anxiety disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Waters, A. M., Ford, L. A., Wharton, T. A., & Cobham, V. E. (2009). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for young children with anxiety disorders: Comparison of a child + parent condition versus a parent only condition. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 654–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Whaley, S. E., Pinto, A., & Sigman, M. (1999). Characterizing interactions between anxious mothers and their children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 826–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wheatcroft, R., & Creswell, C. (2007). Parents’ cognitions and expectations about their pre-school children: The contribution of parental anxiety and child anxiety. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 435–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Wood, J. J. (2006). Parental intrusiveness and children’s separation anxiety in a clinical sample. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37, 73–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Wood, J. J., Drahota, A., Sze, K., Van Dyke, M., Decker, K., Fujii, C., et al. (2009). Brief report: Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on parent-reported autism symptoms in school-age children with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1608–1612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 134–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations