Advertisement

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 329–376 | Cite as

Integrating Etiological Models of Social Anxiety and Depression in Youth: Evidence for a Cumulative Interpersonal Risk Model

  • Catherine C. EpkinsEmail author
  • David R. Heckler
Article

Abstract

Models of social anxiety and depression in youth have been developed separately, and they contain similar etiological influences. Given the high comorbidity of social anxiety and depression, we examine whether the posited etiological constructs are a correlate of, or a risk factor for, social anxiety and/or depression at the symptom level and the diagnostic level. We find core risk factors of temperament, genetics, and parent psychopathology (i.e., depression and anxiety) are neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of social anxiety and/or depression. Instead, aspects of children’s relationships with parents and/or peers either mediates (i.e., explains) or moderates (i.e., interacts with) these core risks being related to social anxiety and/or depression. We then examine various parent- and peer-related constructs contained in the separate models of social anxiety and depression (i.e., parent–child attachment, parenting, social skill deficits, peer acceptance and rejection, peer victimization, friendships, and loneliness). Throughout our review, we report evidence for a Cumulative Interpersonal Risk model that incorporates both core risk factors and specific interpersonal risk factors. Most studies fail to consider comorbidity, thus little is known about the specificity of these various constructs to depression and/or social anxiety. However, we identify shared, differential, and cumulative risks, correlates, consequences, and protective factors. We then put forth demonstrated pathways for the development of depression, social anxiety, and their comorbidity. Implications for understanding comorbidity are highlighted throughout, as are theoretical and research directions for developing and refining models of social anxiety, depression, and their comorbidity. Prevention and treatment implications are also noted.

Keywords

Children’s social anxiety Children’s depression Parent–child relationships Peer relationships Internalizing problems Comorbidity 

References

  1. Abela, J. R. Z., & Hankin, B. L. (2008). Depression in children and adolescents: Causes, treatment, and prevention. In J. R. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 3–5). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alfano, C. A., Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2006). Cognitive correlates of social phobia among children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 189–201. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-9012-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alfano, C. A., Pina, A. A., Villalta, I. K., Beidel, D. C., Ammerman, R. T., & Crosby, L. E. (2009). Mediators and moderators of outcome in the behavioral treatment of childhood social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 945–953. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181af8216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, J. P., Insabella, G., Porter, M. R., Smith, F. D., Land, D., & Phillips, N. (2006). A social interactional model of the development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 55–65. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, E. R., & Hope, D. A. (2008). A review of the tripartite model for understanding the link between anxiety and depression in youth. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 275–287. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.05.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, E. R., Veed, G. J., Inderbitzen-Nolan, H. M., & Hansen, D. J. (2010). An evaluation of the applicability of the tripartite constructs to social anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 195–207. doi: 10.1080/15374410903532643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999a). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 57–87. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Farmer, E. M. Z., Burns, B. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999b). Impaired but undiagnosed. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 129–137. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199902000-00011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Asher, S. R., & Paquette, J. A. (2003). Loneliness and peer relations in childhood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 75–78. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.01233.Google Scholar
  11. Aune, T., & Stiles, T. C. (2009). The effects of depression and stressful life events on the development and maintenance of syndromal social anxiety: Sex and age differences. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 501–512. doi: 10.1080/15374410902976304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Avenevoli, S., Knight, E., Kessler, R. C., & Merikangas, K. R. (2008). Epidemiology of depression in children and adolescents. In J. R. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 6–32). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67, 3296–3319. doi: 10.2307/1131780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bar-Haim, Y., Dan, O., Eshel, Y., & Sagi-Schwartz, A. (2007). Predicting children’s anxiety from early attachment relationships. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 1061–1068. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.10.013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., Hofler, M., Lieb, R., et al. (2007). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 903–912. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.8.903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Beidel, D. C., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2005). Treating childhood social phobia: Social effectiveness therapy for children. In E. D. Hibbs, P. S. Jensen, E. D. Hibbs, & P. S. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice (2nd ed., pp. 75–96). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  17. Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2007). Shy children, phobic adults: Nature and treatment of social anxiety disorder (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  18. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (1999). Psychopathology of childhood social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 643–650. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199906000-00010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., Sallee, F. R., Ammerman, R. T., Crosby, L. A., & Pathak, S. (2007a). SET-C versus fluoxetine in the treatment of childhood social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1622–1632. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e318154bb57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Young, B. J. (2006). Social effectiveness therapy for children: Five years later. Behavior Therapy, 37, 416–425. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2006.06.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., Young, B. J., Ammerman, R. T., Sallee, F. R., & Crosby, L. (2007b). Psychopathology of adolescent social phobia. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 47–54. doi: 10.1007/s10862-006-9021-1.Google Scholar
  22. Bell-Dolan, D. J., Foster, S. L., & Christopher, J. S. (1995). Girls’ peer relations and internalizing problems: Are socially neglected, rejected, and withdrawn girls at risk? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24, 463–473. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2404_10.Google Scholar
  23. Bell-Dolan, D. J., Reaven, N. M., & Peterson, L. (1993). Depression and social functioning: A multidimensional study of linkages. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 306–315. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2203_1.Google Scholar
  24. Benjet, C., Thompson, R. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2010). 5-HTTLPR moderates the effect of relational peer victimization on depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 173–179. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02149.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hérot, C., Friedman, D., Snidman, N., et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1673–1679. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.10.1673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Biggs, B. K., Nelson, J. M., & Sampilo, M. L. (2010). Peer relations in the anxiety-depression link: Test of a mediation model. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 23, 431–447. doi: 10.1080/10615800903406543.Google Scholar
  27. Birmaher, B., Bridge, J. A., Williamson, D. E., Brent, D. A., Dahl, R. E., Axelson, D. A., et al. (2004). Psychosocial functioning in youths at high risk to develop major depressive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 839–846. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000128787.88201.1b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Birmaher, B., Ryan, N. D., Williamson, D. E., Brent, D. A., Kaufman, J., Dahl, R. E., et al. (1996). Childhood and adolescent depression: A review of the past 10 years, part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1427–1439. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199611000-00011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Blount, T. H., & Epkins, C. C. (2009). Exploring modeling-based hypotheses in preadolescent girls’ and boys’ cognitive vulnerability to depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 110–125. doi: 10.1007/s10608-008-9195-9.Google Scholar
  30. Bogels, S. M., Alden, L., Beidel, D. C., Clark, L. A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder: Questions and answers for the DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 168–189. doi: 10.1002/da.20670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bogels, S. M., van Oosten, A., Muris, P., & Smulders, D. (2001). Familial correlates of social anxiety in children and adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 273–287. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00005-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Boivin, M., Hymel, S., & Burkowski, W. M. (1995). The roles of social withdrawal, peer rejection, and victimization by peers in predicting loneliness and depressed mood in childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 765–785. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006830.Google Scholar
  33. Borelli, J. L., & Prinstein, M. J. (2006). Reciprocal, longitudinal associations among adolescents’ negative feedback-seeking, depressive symptoms, and peer relations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 159–169. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-9010-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brady, E., & Kendall, P. C. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 244–255. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.111.2.244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Branje, S. T., Hale, W., Frijns, T., & Meeus, W. J. (2010). Longitudinal associations between perceived parent–child relationship quality and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 751–763. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9401-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brendgen, M., Wanner, B., Morin, A. J. S., & Vitaro, F. (2005). Relations with parents and with peers, temperament, and trajectories of depressed mood during early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 579–594. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-6739-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bruder-Costello, B., Warner, V., Talati, A., Nomura, Y., Bruder, G., & Weissman, M. (2007). Temperament among offspring at high and low risk for depression. Psychiatry Research, 153, 145–151. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.02.013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2008). Mother-child attachment and social anxiety symptoms in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 393–402. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2008.06.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2010a). Mother–child attachment patterns and different types of anxiety symptoms: Is there specificity of relations? Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41, 663–674. doi: 10.1007/s10578-010-0195-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Brumariu, L. E., & Kerns, K. A. (2010b). Parent–child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 177–203. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409990344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Bureau, J., Easterbrooks, M. A., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2009). Maternal depressive symptoms in infancy: Unique contribution to children’s depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence? Development and Psychopathology, 21, 519–537. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409000285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Burstein, M., Ginsburg, G. S., & Tein, J. (2010). Parental anxiety and child symptomatology: An examination of additive and interactive effects of parent psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 897–909. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9415-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185–1229. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Caron, A., Weiss, B., Harris, V., & Catron, T. (2006). Parenting behavior dimensions and child psychopathology: Specificity, task dependency, and interactive relations. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 34–45. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2006). Editorial: Anxiety of childhood and adolescence: Challenges and opportunities. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 813–816. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cartwright-Hatton, S., Hodges, L., & Porter, J. (2003). Social anxiety in childhood: The relationship with self and observer rated social skills. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 737–742. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cartwright-Hatton, S., McNicol, K., & Doubleday, E. (2006). Anxiety in a neglected population: Prevalence of anxiety disorders in pre-adolescent children. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 817–833. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cartwright-Hatton, S., Tschernitz, N., & Gomersall, H. (2005). Social anxiety in children: Social skills deficit, or cognitive distortion? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 131–141. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2003.12.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Newman, D. L., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Behavioral observations at age 3 predict adult psychiatric disorders: Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1033–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chansky, T. E., & Kendall, P. C. (1997). Social expectancies and self-perceptions in anxiety-disordered children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 347–363. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(97)00015-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Chavira, D. A., Stein, M. B., Bailey, K., & Stein, M. T. (2004). Comorbidity of generalized social anxiety disorder and depression in a pediatric primary care sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80, 163–171. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(03)00103-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Chavira, D. A., Stein, M. B., & Malcarne, V. L. (2002). Scrutinizing the relationship between shyness and social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 16, 585–598. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00124-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Chorpita, B. F., Plummer, C. M., & Moffitt, C. E. (2000). Relations of tripartite dimensions of emotion to childhood anxiety and mood disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 299–310. doi: 10.1023/A:1005152505888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., et al. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 928–935. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181ae09df.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597–600. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400007318.Google Scholar
  56. Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: The coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 16–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01979.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Clark, L. A. (2005). Temperament as a unifying basis for personality and psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 505–521. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1999). Temperament: A new paradigm for trait psychology. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 399–423). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (2008). Temperament: An organizing paradigm for trait psychology. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology: Theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 265–286). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  61. Cobham, V. E., Dadds, M. R., Spence, S. H., & McDermott, B. (2010). Parental anxiety in the treatment of childhood anxiety: A different story three years later. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 410–420. doi: 10.1080/15374411003691719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.18.4.557.Google Scholar
  63. Cole, D. A. (1991). Preliminary support for a competency-based model of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 181–190. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.2.181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Cole, D. A., Martin, J., & Powers, B. (1997). A competency-based model of child depression: A longitudinal study of peer, parent, teacher, and self-evaluations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 505–514. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01537.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Cole, D. A., Martin, J., Powers, B., & Truglio, R. (1996). Modeling causal relations between academic and social competence and depression: A multitrait-multimethod longitudinal study of children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 258–270. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.105.2.258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Cole, D. A., Maxwell, M. A., Dukewich, T. L., & Yosick, R. (2010). Targeted peer victimization and the construction of positive and negative self-cognitions: Connections to depressive symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 421–435. doi: 10.1080/15374411003691776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Cole, D. A., Peeke, L. G., Martin, J. M., Truglio, R., & Seroczynski, A. D. (1998). A longitudinal look at the relation between depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 451–460. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.66.3.451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Compas, B. E., Champion, J. E., Forehand, R., Cole, D. A., Reeslund, K. L., Fear, J., et al. (2010). Coping and parenting: Mediators of 12-month outcomes of a family group cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention with families of depressed parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 623–634. doi: 10.1037/a0020459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Compas, B. E., & Hammen, C. L. (1996). Child and adolescent depression: Covariation and comorbidity in development. In R. J. Haggerty, L. R. Sherrod, N. Garmezy, & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions (pp. 225–267). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Connolly, J., Geller, S., Marton, P., & Kutcher, S. (1992). Peer responses to social interaction with depressed adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 365–370. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2104_6.Google Scholar
  71. Cooper, P. J., Fearn, V., Willetts, L., Seabrook, H., & Parkinson, M. (2006). Affective disorder in the parents of a clinic sample of children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93, 205–212. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.03.017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2009). Configurations of common childhood psychosocial risk factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 451–459. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02005.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Costello, E. J., Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2005). The developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders: Phenomenology, prevalence, and comorbidity. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 631–648. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.205.06.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Craske, M. G. (2003). Origins of phobias and anxiety disorders: Why more women than men?. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  75. Crawley, S. A., Beidas, R. S., Benjamin, C. L., Martin, E., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). Treating socially phobic youth with CBT: Differential outcomes and treatment considerations. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 379–389. doi: 10.1017/S1352465808004542.Google Scholar
  76. Creswell, C., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2007). Family treatment of child anxiety: Outcomes, limitations and future directions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 232–252. doi: 10.1007/s10567-007-0019-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1996). Children’s treatment by peers: Victims of relational and overt aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 367–380. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400007148.Google Scholar
  78. Crick, N. R., & Ladd, G. W. (1993). Children’s perceptions of their peer experiences: Attributions, loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance. Developmental Psychology, 29, 244–254. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.29.2.244.Google Scholar
  79. Cuevas, C. A., Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Turner, H. (2009). Psychiatric diagnosis as a risk marker for victimization in a national sample of children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 636–652. doi: 10.1177/088626058317197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Cummings, C., & Fristad, M. (2008). Mood disorders in childhood. In R. G. Steele, T. D. Elkin, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of evidence-based therapies for children and adolescents: Bridging science and practice (pp. 145–160). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. Dallaire, D. H., Pineda, A. Q., Cole, D. A., Ciesla, J. A., Jacquez, F., LaGrange, B., et al. (2006). Relation of positive and negative parenting to children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 313–322. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3502_15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Degnan, K. A., Almas, A., & Fox, N. A. (2010). Temperament and the environment in the etiology of childhood anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 497–517. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02228.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., Fox, N. A., & Rubin, K. H. (2008). Predicting social wariness in middle childhood: The moderating roles of childcare history, maternal personality and maternal behavior. Social Development, 17, 471–487. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00437.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Diener, M. L., Isabella, R. A., Behunin, M. G., & Wong, M. S. (2008). Attachment to mothers and fathers during middle childhood: Associations with child gender, grade, and competence. Social Development, 17, 84–101. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00416.Google Scholar
  85. Dill, J. C., & Anderson, C. A. (1999). Loneliness, shyness, and depression: The etiology and interrelationships of everyday problems in living. In T. Joiner & J. C. Coyne (Eds.), The interactional nature of depression (pp. 93–125). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  86. Dougherty, L. R., Bufferd, S. J., Carlson, G. A., Dyson, M., Olino, T. M., Durbin, C. E., et al. (2011). Preschoolers’ observed temperament and psychiatric disorders assessed with a parent diagnostic interview. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 295–306. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2011.546046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Dougherty, L. R., Klein, D. N., Durbin, C. E., Hayden, E. P., & Olino, T. M. (2010). Temperamental positive and negative emotionality and children’s depressive symptoms: A longitudinal prospective study from age three to age ten. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29, 462–488. doi: 10.1521/jscp.2010.29.4.462.Google Scholar
  88. Ehrenreich, J. T., Goldstein, C. R., Wright, L. R., & Barlow, D. H. (2009a). Development of a unified protocol for the treatment of emotional disorders in youth. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 31, 20–37. doi: 10.1080/07317100802701228.Google Scholar
  89. Ehrenreich, J. T., Micco, J. A., Fisher, P. H., & Warner, C. (2009b). Assessment of relevant parenting factors in families of clinically anxious children: The Family Assessment Clinician-Rated Interview (FACI). Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 331–342. doi: 10.1007/s10578-009-0128-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Eisen, A. R., Spasaro, S. A., Brien, L. K., Kearney, C. A., & Albano, A. M. (2004). Parental expectancies and childhood anxiety disorders: Psychometric properties of the Parental Expectancies Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18, 89–109. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2001.10.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Eley, T. C., Napolitano, M., Lau, J. Y. F., & Gregory, A. M. (2010). Does childhood anxiety evoke maternal control? A genetically informed study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(7), 772–779. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02227.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Eley, T. C., Rijsdijk, F. V., Perrin, S., O’Connor, T. G., & Bolton, D. (2008). A multivariate genetic analysis of specific phobia, separation anxiety and social phobia in early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 839–848. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9216-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Epkins, C. C. (1996). Affective confounding in social anxiety and dysphoria in children: Child, mother, and father reports of internalizing behaviors, social problems, and competence domains. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 15, 449–470.Google Scholar
  94. Epkins, C. C. (1998). Mother- and father-rated competence, child perceived competence, and cognitive distortions: Unique relations with children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 442–451. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Erath, S. A., Flanagan, K. S., Bierman, K. L., & Tu, K. M. (2010). Friendships moderate psychosocial maladjustment in socially anxious early adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 15–26. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2009.05.005.Google Scholar
  96. Essau, C., Conradt, J., & Petermann, F. (1999). Frequency and comorbidity of social phobia and social fears in adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 831–843. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00179-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Feeny, N. C., Silva, S. G., Reinecke, M. A., McNulty, S., Findling, R. L., Rohde, P., et al. (2009). An exploratory analysis of the impact of family functioning on treatment for depression in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 814–825. doi: 10.1080/15374410903297148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Festa, C. C., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2011). Parental and peer predictors of social anxiety in youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 291–306. doi: 10.1007/s10578-011-0215-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Field, A. P., Hamilton, S. J., Knowles, K. A., & Plews, E. L. (2003). Fear information and social phobic beliefs in children: A prospective paradigm and preliminary results. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 113–123. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00050-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Fisak, B., & Grills-Taquechel, A. E. (2007). Parental modeling, reinforcement, and information transfer: Risk factors in the development of child anxiety? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 213–231. doi: 10.1007/s10567-007-0020-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Flanagan, K. S., Erath, S. A., & Bierman, K. L. (2008). Unique associations between peer relations and social anxiety in early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 759–769. doi: 10.1080/15374410802359700.Google Scholar
  102. Flory, V., Vance, A. L. A., Birleson, P., & Luk, E. S. L. (2002). Early onset dysthymic disorder in children and adolescents: Clinical implications and future directions. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 7, 79–84. doi: 10.1111/1475-3588.00015.Google Scholar
  103. Fontaine, R. G., Yang, C., Burks, V. S., Dodge, K. A., Price, J. M., Pettit, G. S., et al. (2009). Loneliness as a partial mediator of the relation between low social preference in childhood and anxious/depressed symptoms in adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 479–491. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409000261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Fox, N. A. (2010). Factors contributing to the emergence of anxiety among behaviorally inhibited children: The role of attention. In H. Gazelle & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development (Vol. 127, pp. 33–49). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  105. Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Marshall, P. J., Nichols, K. E., & Ghera, M. M. (2005). Behavioral inhibition: Linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 235–262. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Gazelle, H. (2010). Anxious solitude/withdrawal and anxiety disorders: Conceptualization, co-occurrence, and peer processes leading toward and away from disorder in childhood. In H. Gazelle & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development (Vol. 127, pp. 67–78). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  107. Gazelle, H., & Ladd, G. W. (2003). Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: A diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development, 74, 257–278. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Gazelle, H., & Rubin, K. H. (2010). Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. In H. Gazelle & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. New directions for child and adolescent development (Vol. 127, pp. 1–16). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  109. Gazelle, H., & Rudolph, K. D. (2004). Moving toward and away from the world: Social approach and avoidance trajectories in anxious solitary youth. Child Development, 75, 829–849. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00709.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Gazelle, H., Workman, J. O., & Allan, W. (2010). Anxious solitude and clinical disorder in middle childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical approaches to childhood social anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 1–17. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9343-z.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ginsburg, G. S., La Greca, A. M., & Silverman, W. K. (1998). Social anxiety in children with anxiety disorders: Relation with social and emotional functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 175–185. doi: 10.1023/A:1022668101048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Gladstone, G., & Parker, G. (2006). Is behavioral inhibition a risk factor for depression? Journal of Affective Disorders, 95, 85–94. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.04.015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Goodman, S. H. (2007). Depression in mothers. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 107–135. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.106.3.458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (2002). Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  116. Goodman, S. H., Schwab-Stone, M., Lahey, B. B., Shaffer, D., & Jensen, P. S. (2000). Major depression and dysthymia in children and adolescents: Discriminant validity and differential consequences in a community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 761–770. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200006000-00015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Goodman, S. H., & Tully, E. (2008). Children of depressed mothers: Implications for the etiology, treatment, and prevention of depression in children and adolescents. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 415–440). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  118. Goodrich, M. M., Epkins, C. C., Hoskinson, C. H., Alfar, N., Heckler, D. R., & Dolph, M. (2008, November). Relations between components of the tripartite model and children’s depression, general anxiety, and social anxiety: Do age and gender moderate? Poster session presented at the 42nd annual convention of the association of behavioral and cognitive therapies, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  119. Greco, L. A., & Morris, T. L. (2002). Paternal child-rearing style and child social anxiety: Investigation of child perceptions and actual father behavior. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 259–267. doi: 10.1023/A:1020779000183.Google Scholar
  120. Greco, L. A., & Morris, T. L. (2005). Factors influencing the link between social anxiety and peer acceptance: Contributions of social skills and close friendships during middle childhood. Behavior Therapy, 36, 197–205. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80068-1.Google Scholar
  121. Gregory, A. M., & Eley, T. C. (2007). Genetic influences on anxiety in children: What we’ve learned and where we’re heading. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 199–212. doi: 10.1007/s10567-007-0022-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Gullone, E., Ollendick, T. H., & King, N. J. (2006). The role of attachment representation in the relationship between depressive symptomatology and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 271–285. doi: 10.1007/s10826-006-9034-0.Google Scholar
  123. Gunlicks-Stoessel, M., Mufson, L., Jekal, A., & Turner, J. B. (2010). The impact of perceived interpersonal functioning on treatment for adolescent depression: IPT-A versus treatment as usual in school-based health clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 260–267. doi: 10.1037/a0018935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Hallett, V., Ronald, A., Rijsdijk, F., & Eley, T. C. (2009). Phenotypic and genetic differentiation of anxiety-related behaviors in middle childhood. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 316–324. doi: 10.1002/da.20538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hankin, B. L. (2009). Development of sex differences in depressive and co-occurring anxious symptoms during adolescence: Descriptive trajectories and potential explanations in a multiwave prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 460–472. doi: 10.1080/15374410902976288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Hankin, B. L., Wetter, E., & Cheely, C. (2008). Sex differences in child and adolescent depression: A developmental psychopathological approach. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 377–414). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  127. Harter, S. (1985). Manual for the self-perception profile for children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.Google Scholar
  128. Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 441–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Hayward, C., Wilson, K. A., Lagle, K., Kraemer, H. C., Killen, J. D., & Taylor, C. B. (2008). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 200–206. doi: 10.1002/da.20289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Heinrich, L. M., & Gullone, E. (2006). The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 695–718. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.04.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Heinrichs, N., Rapee, R. M., Alden, L. A., Bogels, S., Hofmann, S. G., Ja Oh, K., et al. (2006). Cultural differences in perceived social norms and social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1187–1197. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.09.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Heiser, N. A., Turner, S. M., & Beidel, D. C. (2003). Shyness: Relationship to social phobia and other psychiatric disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 209–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Heiser, N. A., Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Roberson-Nay, R. (2009). Differentiating social phobia from shyness. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 469–476. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.10.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Hill, N. E., Bromell, L., Tyson, D. F., & Flint, R. (2007). Developmental commentary: Ecological perspectives on parental influences during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 367–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Hilt, L. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2009). The emergence of gender differences in depression in adolescence. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 111–135). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  136. Hipwell, A., Keenan, K., Kasza, K., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Bean, T. (2008). Reciprocal influences between girls’ conduct problems and depression, and parental punishment and warmth: A six year prospective analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 663–677. doi: 10.1007/s10802-007-9206-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R. (2010). Familial and temperamental risk factors for social anxiety disorder. In H. Gazelle & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. New directions for child and adolescent development (Vol. 127, pp. 51–65). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  138. Hirshfeld-Becker, D., Biederman, J., Henin, A., Faraone, S., Davis, S., Harrington, K., et al. (2007). Behavioral inhibition in preschool children at risk is a specific predictor of middle childhood social anxiety: A five-year follow-up. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 28, 225–233. doi: 10.1097/01.DBP.0000268559.34463.d0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Masek, B., Henin, A., Blakely, L. R., Pollock-Wurman, R. A., & Biederman, J. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for 4- to 7-year-old children with anxiety disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 498–510. doi: 10.1037/a0019055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Hirshfeld-Becker, D., Micco, J., Henin, A., Bloomfield, A., Biederman, J., & Rosenbaum, J. (2008). Behavioral inhibition. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 357–367. doi: 10.1002/da.20490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Hoskinson, C. H., Epkins, C. C., Goodrich, M. M., Alfar, N., Heckler, D. R., & Dolph, M. (2008, November). Does effortful control mediate the relations between children’s negative and positive affect and their internalizing symptoms? Poster session presented at the 42nd annual convention of the association of behavioral and cognitive therapies, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  142. Hudson, J. L., Doyle, A. M., & Gar, N. (2009). Child and maternal influence on parenting behavior in clinically anxious children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 256–262. doi: 10.1080/15374410802698438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2009). Familial and social environments in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Oxford handbook of anxiety and related disorders (pp. 173–189). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Hughes, A. A., Furr, J. M., Sood, E. D., Barmish, A. J., & Kendall, P. C. (2009). Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in parents of children with anxiety disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 405–419. doi: 10.1007/s10578-009-0133-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Hughes, A. A., & Kendall, P. C. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) in children with anxiety disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 343–352. doi: 10.1007/s10578-009-0130-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Hummel, R. M., & Gross, A. M. (2001). Socially anxious children: An observational study of parent–child interaction. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 23, 19–41. doi: 10.1300/J019v23n03.Google Scholar
  147. Hutcherson, S. T., & Epkins, C. C. (2009). Differentiating parent- and peer-related interpersonal correlates of depressive symptoms and social anxiety in preadolescent girls. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26, 875–897. doi: 10.1177/0265407509345654.Google Scholar
  148. Inderbitzen, H. M., Walters, K. S., & Bukowski, A. L. (1997). The role of social anxiety in adolescent peer relations: Differences among sociometric status groups and rejected subgroups. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 338–348. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2604_2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Inderbitzen-Nolan, H. M., Anderson, E. R., & Johnson, H. S. (2007). Subjective versus objective behavioral ratings following two analogue tasks: A comparison of socially phobic and non-anxious adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 76–90. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.03.013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Johnson, H. S., Inderbitzen-Nolan, H. M., & Schapman, A. M. (2005). A comparison between socially anxious and depressive symptomatology in youth: A focus on perceived family environment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 423–442. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2004.04.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Joiner, T. E., Jr., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (2002). The core of loneliness: Lack of pleasurable engagement—more so than painful disconnection—predicts social impairment, depression onset, and recovery from depressive disorders among adolescents. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 472–491. doi: 10.1207/S15327752JPA7903_05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Joiner, T. E., & Lonigan, C. J. (2000). Tripartite model of depression and anxiety in youth psychiatric inpatients: Relations with diagnostic status and future symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 372–382. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP2903_8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Joormann, J., Eugene, F., & Gotlib, I. H. (2009). Parental depression: Impact on offspring and mechanisms underlying transmission of risk. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 441–472). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  154. Kagan, J. (2008). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for psychopathology. In T. P. Beauchaine & S. P. Hinshaw (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 157–179). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  155. Kane, P., & Garber, J. (2004). The relations among depression in fathers, children’s psychopathology, and father-child conflict: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 339–360. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.03.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Kaslow, N. J., Broth, M. R., Arnette, N. C., & Collins, M. H. (2009). Family based treatment for adolescent depression. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 531–570). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  157. Kawabata, Y., Crick, N. R., & Hamaguchi, Y. (2010). Forms of aggression, social-psychological adjustment, and peer victimization in a Japanese sample: The moderating role of positive and negative friendship quality. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 471–484. doi: 10.1007/s10802-010-9386-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Kearney, C. A. (2005). Social anxiety and social phobia in youth: Characteristics, assessment, and psychological treatment. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  159. Kendall, P. C., Hudson, J. L., Gosch, E., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Suveg, C. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disordered youth: A randomized clinical trial evaluating child and family modalities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 282–297. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Marikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Kessler, R. C., Ruscio, A. M., Shear, K., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2009). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders. In M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Oxford handbook of anxiety and related disorders (pp. 19–33). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  162. Kessler, R. C., Stang, P., Wittchen, H.-U., Stein, M., & Walters, E. E. (1999). Lifetime co-morbidities between social phobia and mood disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychological Medicine, 29, 555–567. doi: 10.1017/S0033291799008375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Kessler, R. C., & Wang, P. S. (2008). The descriptive epidemiology of commonly occurring mental disorders in the United States. Annual Review of Public Health, 29, 115–129. doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Kingery, J. N., Erdley, C. A., Marshall, K. C., Whitaker, K. G., & Reuter, T. R. (2010). Peer experiences of anxious and socially withdrawn youth: An integrative review of the developmental and clinical literature. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13, 91–128. doi: 10.1007/s10567-009-0063-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Kistner, J. (2006). Children’s peer acceptance, perceived acceptance, and risk for depression. In T. E. Joiner, J. S. Brown, & J. Kistner (Eds.), The interpersonal, cognitive, and social nature of depression (pp. 1–21). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  166. Kistner, J., Balthazor, M., Risi, S., & Burton, C. (1999). Predicting dysphoria in adolescence from actual and perceived peer acceptance in childhood. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 94–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Kistner, J. A., David-Ferdon, C. F., Repper, K. K., & Joiner, T. E. (2006). Bias and accuracy of children’s perceptions of peer acceptance: Prospective associations with depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 349–361. doi: 10.1007/s10802-006-9028-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Klomek, A. B., Marrocco, F., Kleinman, M., Schonfeld, I. S., & Gould, M. S. (2008). Peer victimization, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 38, 166–180. doi: 10.1521/suli.2008.38.2.166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Knappe, S., Beesdo, K., Fehm, L., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2009a). Associations of familial risk factors with social fears and social phobia: Evidence for the continuum hypothesis in social anxiety disorder? Journal of Neural Transmission, 116, 639–648. doi: 10.1007/s00702-008-0118-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Knappe, S., Lieb, R., Beesdo, K., Fehm, L., Ping Low, N. C., Gloster, A. T., et al. (2009b). The role of parental psychopathology and family environment for social phobia in the first three decades of life. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 363–370. doi: 10.1002/DA.20527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Kovacs, M., Akiskal, H. S., Gatsonis, C., & Parrone, P. L. (1994). Childhood-onset dysthymic disorder: Clinical features and prospective naturalistic outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 365–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Kovacs, M., Goldston, D., & Gatsonis, C. (1993). Suicidal behaviors and childhood-onset depressive disorders: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 8–20. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199301000-00003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Kovacs, M., Obrosky, S., Gatsonis, C., & Richards, C. (1997). First-episode major depressive and dysthymic disorder in childhood: Clinical and sociodemographic factors in recovery. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 777–784. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199706000-00014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Krackow, E., & Rudolph, K. D. (2008). Life stress and the accuracy of cognitive appraisals in depressed youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 376–385. doi: 10.1080/15374410801955797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., Patrick, C. J., Carlson, S. R., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2002). Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: Modeling the externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 411–424. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.111.3.411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., Benning, S. D., & Kramer, M. D. (2007). Linking antisocial behavior, substance use, and personality: An integrative quantitative model of the adult externalizing spectrum. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 645–666. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.4.645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. La Greca, A. M. (1999). Social anxiety scales for children and adolescents: Manual and instructions for the SASC, SASC-R, SAS-A (adolescents), and parent versions of the scales. Miami, FL: University of Miami, Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  178. La Greca, A. M., Dandes, S. K., Wick, P., & Shaw, K. (1988). Development of the Social Anxiety Scale for children: Reliability and concurrent validity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 84–91.Google Scholar
  179. La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 83–94. doi: 10.1023/A:1022684520514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. La Greca, A. M., & Moore Harrison, H. (2005). Adolescent peer relations, friendships, and romantic relationships: Do they predict social anxiety and depression? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 49–61. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. La Greca, A. M., & Stone, W. L. (1993). Social Anxiety Scale for Children–Revised: Factor structure and concurrent validity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 17–27.Google Scholar
  182. Last, C. G., Perrin, S., Hersen, M., & Kazdin, A. E. (1992). DSM-III-R anxiety disorders in children: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 1070–1076. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199211000-00012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Last, C. G., Strauss, C. C., & Francis, G. (1987). Comorbidity among childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 726–730. doi: 10.1097/00005053-198712000-00004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Lau, J. Y. F., & Eley, T. C. (2008). New behavioral genetic approaches to depression in childhood and adolescence. In J. R. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 124–148). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  185. Lau, J. Y. F., & Eley, T. C. (2009). The genetics of adolescent depression. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. M. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of depression in adolescents (pp. 259–277). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  186. Lau, J. Y. F., & Eley, T. C. (2010). The genetics of mood disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 313–337. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Leary, M. R. (1990). Responses to social exclusion: Social anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, depression, and low self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 221–229.Google Scholar
  188. Lee, A., & Hankin, B. L. (2009). Insecure attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, and low self-esteem predicting prospective symptoms of depression and anxiety during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 219–231. doi: 10.1080/15374410802698396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Lee, A., Hankin, B. L., & Mermelstein, R. J. (2010). Perceived social competence, negative social interactions, and negative cognitive style predict depressive symptoms during adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 603–615. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2010.501284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Lester, K. J., Field, A. P., Oliver, S., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2009). Do anxious parents interpretive biases towards threat extend into their child’s environment? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 170–174. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.11.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. M. Friedman & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research (pp. 157–185). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  192. Lewinsohn, P. M., Gotlib, I. H., & Seeley, J. R. (1997). Depression-related psychosocial variables: Are they specific to depression in adolescents? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 365–375. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.106.3.365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., & Seeley, J. R. (1998). Major depressive disorder in older adolescents: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 765–794. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00010-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Liber, J. M., van Widenfelt, B. M., Goedhart, A. W., Utens, E. M., van der Leeden, A. J. M., Markus, M. T., et al. (2008). Parenting and parental anxiety and depression as predictors of treatment outcome for childhood anxiety disorders: Has the role of fathers been underestimated? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 747–758. doi: 10.1080/15374410802359692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Lieb, R., Wittchen, H., Höfler, M., Fuetsch, M., Stein, M. B., & Merikangas, K. R. (2000). Parental psychopathology, parenting styles, and the risk of social phobia in offspring: A prospective-longitudinal community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 859–866. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.57.9.859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Liu, Y. (2008). An examination of three models of the relationships between parental attachments and adolescents’ social functioning and depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 941–952. doi: 10.1007/s10964-006-9147-1.Google Scholar
  197. Lonigan, C. J., Phillips, B. M., & Hooe, E. S. (2003). Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 465–481. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Lonigan, C. J., Vasey, M. W., Phillips, B. M., & Hazen, R. A. (2004). Temperament, anxiety, and the processing of threat—relevant stimuli. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 8–20. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. McLeod, B., Weisz, J., & Wood, J. (2007a). Examining the association between parenting and childhood depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 986–1003. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2007.03.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. McLeod, B., Wood, J., & Weisz, J. (2007b). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 155–172. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Merikangas, K. R., Prusoff, B. A., & Weissman, M. M. (1988). Parental concordance for affective disorders: Psychopathology in offspring. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 279–290. doi: 10.1016/0165-0327(88)90025-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Micco, J. A., Henin, A., Mick, E., Kim, S., Hopkins, C. A., Biederman, J., et al. (2009). Anxiety and depressive disorders in offspring at high risk for anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1158–1164. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.07.021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Mineka, S., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 377–412. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Morgan, J., & Banerjee, R. (2006). Social anxiety and self-evaluation of social performance in a nonclinical sample of children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 292–301. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3502_13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Morrow, M. T., Hubbard, J. A., Rubin, R. M., & McAuliffe, M. D. (2008). The relation between childhood aggression and depressive symptoms: The unique and joint mediating roles of peer rejection and peer victimization. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 316–340. doi: 10.1353/mpq.0.0000.Google Scholar
  206. Mufson, L. (2010). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A): Extending the reach from academic to community settings. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 15, 66–72. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2009.00556.x.Google Scholar
  207. Mufson, L., Dorta, K. P., Moreau, D., & Weissman, M. M. (2004). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  208. Muris, P., Bos, A. E. R., Mayer, B., Verkade, R., Thewissen, V., & Dell’Avvento, V. (2009). Relations among behavioral inhibition, big five personality factors, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 525–529. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.12.003.Google Scholar
  209. Muris, P., de Jong, P. J., & Engelen, S. (2004). Relationships between neuroticism, attentional control, and anxiety disorders symptoms in non–clinical children. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 789–797. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2003.10.007.Google Scholar
  210. Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Rompelberg, L. (2007). Attention control in middle childhood: Relations to psychopathological symptoms and threat perception distortions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 997–1010. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.07.010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Schmidt, H., Gadet, B., & Bogie, N. (2001). Anxiety and depression as correlates of self-reported behavioural inhibition in normal adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1051–1061. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00081-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Muris, P., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). The role of temperament in the etiology of child psychopathology. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 271–289. doi: 10.1007/s10567-005-8809-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Muris, P., van Zwol, L., Huijding, J., & Mayer, B. (2010). Mom told me scary things about this animal: Parents installing fear beliefs in their children via the verbal information pathway. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 341–346. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Nangle, D. W., Erdley, C. A., Newman, J. E., Mason, C. A., & Carpenter, E. M. (2003). Popularity, friendship quantity, and friendship quality: Interactive influences on children’s loneliness and depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 546–555. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3204_7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Naragon-Gainey, K., Watson, D., & Markon, K. E. (2009). Differential relations of depression and social anxiety symptoms to the facets of extraversion/positive emotionality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 299–310. doi: 10.1037/a0015637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Pattee, L. (1993). Children’s peer relations: A meta-analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 99–128. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Nigg, J. (2006). Temperament and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 395–422. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01612.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Nolan, S., Flynn, C., & Garber, J. (2003). Prospective relations between rejection and depression in young adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 745–755. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Olino, T. M., Klein, D. N., Dyson, M. W., Rose, S. A., & Durbin, C. E. (2010). Temperamental emotionality in preschool-aged children and depressive disorders in parents: Associations in a large community sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 468–478. doi: 10.1037/a0020112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Ollendick, T. H., Costa, N. M., & Benoit, K. E. (2010). Interpersonal processes and the anxiety disorders of childhood. In J. G. Beck (Ed.), Interpersonal processes in the anxiety disorders: Implications for understanding psychopathology and treatment (pp. 71–95). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/12084-003.
  221. Ollendick, T. H., Jarrett, M. A., Grills-Taquechel, A. E., Hovey, L. D., & Wolff, J. C. (2008). Comorbidity as a predictor and moderator of treatment outcome in youth with anxiety, affective, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and oppositional/conduct disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1447–1471. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2008.09.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Oppenheimer, C. W., & Hankin, B. L. (2011). Relationship quality and depressive symptoms among adolescents: A short-term multiwave investigation of longitudinal, reciprocal relations. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 486–493. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2011.563462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.29.4.611.Google Scholar
  224. Pedersen, S., Vitaro, F., Barker, E. D., & Borge, A. I. H. (2007). The timing of middle-childhood peer rejection and friendship: Linking early behavior to early-adolescent adjustment. Child Development, 78, 1037–1051. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01051.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Perren, S., & Alsaker, F. D. (2009). Depressive symptoms from kindergarten to early school age: Longitudinal associations with social skills deficits and peer victimization. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3, 28–38. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-3-28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Pettit, J. W., Olino, T. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2008). Intergenerational transmission of internalizing problems: Effects of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder on child behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 640–650. doi: 10.1080/15374410802148129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Prinstein, M. J., & Aikins, J. W. (2004). Cognitive moderators of the longitudinal association between peer rejection and adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 147–158. doi: 10.1023/B:JACP.0000019767.55592.63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Prinstein, M. J., Boergers, J., & Vernberg, E. M. (2001). Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 479–491. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3004_05.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Prinstein, M. J., Borelli, J. L., Cheah, C. S. L., Simon, V. A., & Aikins, J. W. (2005). Adolescent girls’ interpersonal vulnerability to depressive symptoms: A longitudinal examination of reassurance-seeking and peer relationships. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 676–688. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Prinstein, M. J., & Dodge, K. A. (Eds.). (2008). Understanding peer influence in children and adolescents. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  231. Prinstein, M. J., & La Greca, A. M. (2002). Peer crowd affiliation and internalizing distress in childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal follow-back study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 325–351. doi: 10.1111/1532-7795.00036.Google Scholar
  232. Ranta, K., Kaltiala-Heino, R., Pelkonen, M., & Marttunen, M. (2009a). Associations between peer victimization, self-reported depression and social phobia among adolescents: The role of comorbidity. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 77–93. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.11.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Ranta, K., Kaltiala-Heino, R., Rantanen, P., & Marttunen, M. (2009b). Social phobia in Finnish general adolescent population: Prevalence, comorbidity, individual and family correlates, and service use. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 528–536. doi: 10.1002/da.20422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Rao, P. A., Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., Ammerman, R. T., Crosby, L., & Sallee, F. R. (2007). Social anxiety disorder in childhood and adolescence: Descriptive psychopathology. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1181–1191. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.07.015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Rapee, R. M. (1997). Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 47–67. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(96)00040-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Rapee, R. M. (2002). The development and modification of temperamental risk for anxiety disorders: Prevention of a lifetime of anxiety? Biological Psychiatry, 52, 947–957. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01572-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741–756. doi: 10.1016/S0005-967(97)00022-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Rapee, R. M., Schniering, C. A., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: Origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 311–341. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Rapee, R. M., & Spence, S. (2004). The etiology of social phobia: Empirical evidence and an initial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 737–767. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.06.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Reeb, B. T., & Conger, K. J. (2009). The unique effect of paternal depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning: Associations with gender and father-adolescent relationship closeness. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 758–761. doi: 10.1037/a0016354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., & Telch, M. J. (2010). Peer victimization and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 244–252. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Rice, F., Harold, G., Shelton, K., & Thapar, A. (2006). Family conflict interacts with genetic liability in predicting childhood and adolescent depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 841–848. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000219834.08602.44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Romero, L. E., & Epkins, C. C. (2008). Girls’ cognitions of hypothetical friends: Are they related to depression, loneliness, social anxiety and perceived similarity? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 25, 311–332. doi: 10.1177/0265407507087961.Google Scholar
  244. Rork, K. E., & Morris, T. L. (2009). Influence of parenting factors on childhood social anxiety: Direct observation of parental warmth and control. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 31, 220–235. doi: 10.1080/07317100903099274.Google Scholar
  245. Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: Potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 98–131. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 99–166). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  247. Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K., & Hastings, P. (2002). Stability and social-behavioral consequences of toddlers’ inhibited temperament and parenting behaviors. Child Development, 73, 483–495. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Rubin, K. H., & Coplan, R. J. (2004). Paying attention to and not neglecting social withdrawal and social isolation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, 506–534. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2004.0036.Google Scholar
  249. Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., & Bowker, J. C. (2009). Social withdrawal in childhood. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 141–171. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Rubin, K. H., Dwyer, K. M., Booth-LaForce, C., Kim, A. H., Burgess, K. B., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2004). Attachment, friendship, and psychosocial functioning in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24, 326–356. doi: 10.1177.0272431604268530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Rubin, K., Fredstrom, B., & Bowker, J. (2008). Future directions in friendship in childhood and early adolescence. Social Development, 17, 1085–1096. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00445.x.Google Scholar
  252. Rubin, K. H., Nelson, L. J., Hastings, P., & Asendorpf, J. (1999). The transaction between parents’ perceptions of their children’s shyness and their parenting styles. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 937–958. doi: 10.1080/016502599383612.Google Scholar
  253. Rubin, K. H., Root, A. K., & Bowker, J. (2010). Parents, peers, and social withdrawal in childhood: A relationship perspective. In H. Gazelle & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), Social anxiety in childhood: Bridging developmental and clinical perspectives. New directions for child and adolescent development (Vol. 127, pp. 79–94). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  254. Rudolph, K. D., & Clark, A. G. (2001). Conceptions of relationships in children with depressive and aggressive symptoms: Social-cognitive distortion or reality? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 41–56. doi: 10.1023/A.1005299429060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Rudolph, K. D., Flynn, M., & Abaied, J. L. (2008). A developmental perspective on interpersonal theories of youth depression. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 79–102). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  256. Rudolph, K. D., Ladd, G., & Dinella, L. (2007). Gender differences in the interpersonal consequences of early-onset depressive symptoms. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53, 461–488. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2007.0020.Google Scholar
  257. Ruscio, A. M., Brown, T. A., Chiu, W. T., Sareen, J., Stein, M. B., & Kessler, R. C. (2008). Social fears and social phobia in the USA: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychological Medicine, 38, 15–28. doi: 10.1017/S0033291707001699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 8, 324–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J., & Maughan, B. (2006a). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 276–295. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01614.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Rutter, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Capsi, A. (2006b). Gene-environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 226–261. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01557.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Sameroff, A. J. (2000). Dialectical processes in developmental psychopathology. In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 23–40). New York, NY: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  262. Schmidt, M. E., & Bagwell, C. L. (2007). The protective role of friendships in overtly and relationally victimized boys and girls. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53, 439–460. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2007.0021.Google Scholar
  263. Segrin, C. (2000). Social skills deficits associated with depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 379–403. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00104-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Seligman, L. D., & Ollendick, T. H. (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: An integrative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1, 125–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Sentse, M., Lindenberg, S., Omvlee, A., Ormel, J., & Veenstra, R. (2010). Rejection and acceptance across contexts: Parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. The TRAILS study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 119–130. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9351-z.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Shanahan, L., Copeland, W., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2008). Specificity of putative psychosocial risk factors for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 34–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01822.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Sheeber, L. B., Davis, B., Leve, C., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2007). Adolescents’ relationships with their mothers and fathers: Associations with depressive disorder and subdiagnostic symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 144–154. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Sheeber, L., Hops, H., Alpert, A., Davis, B., & Andrews, J. (1997). Family support and conflict: Prospective relations to adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 333–344. doi: 10.1023/A:1025768504415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Siegel, R. S., La Greca, A. M., & Harrison, H. M. (2009). Peer victimization and social anxiety in adolescents: Prospective and reciprocal relationships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1096–1109. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9392-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Silverman, W. K., Kurtines, W. M., Jaccard, J., & Pina, A. A. (2009). Directionality of change in youth anxiety treatment involving parents: An initial examination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 474–485. doi: 10.1037/a0015761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Spence, S. H., Donovan, C., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. (1999). Social skills, social outcomes, and cognitive features of childhood social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 211–221. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.108.2.211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Starr, L. R., & Davila, J. (2008). Differentiating interpersonal correlates of depressive symptoms and social anxiety in adolescence: Implications for models of comorbidity. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 337–349. doi: 10.1080/15374410801955854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Stednitz, J. N., & Epkins, C. C. (2006). Girls’ and mothers’ social anxiety, social skills, and loneliness: Associations after accounting for depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 148–154. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Stein, M. B., Chavira, D. A., & Jang, K. L. (2001). Bringing up bashful baby: Developmental pathways to social phobia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 661–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Stice, E., Ragan, J., & Randall, P. (2004). Prospective relations between social support and depression: Differential direction of effects for parent and peer support? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 155–159. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.1.155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Storch, E. A., Brassard, M. R., & Masia-Warner, C. L. (2003a). The relationship of peer victimization to social anxiety and loneliness in adolescence. Child Study Journal, 33, 1–18.Google Scholar
  277. Storch, E. A., Eisenberg, P. S., Roberti, J. W., & Barlas, M. E. (2003b). Reliability and validity of the Social Anxiety Scale for children-revised for Hispanic children. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 410–422. doi: 10.1177/0739986303256915.Google Scholar
  278. Storch, E. A., & Ledley, D. (2005). Peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment in children: Current knowledge and future directions. Clinical Pediatrics, 44, 29–38. doi: 10.1177/000992280504400103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Storch, E. A., Masia-Warner, C., Crisp, H., & Klein, R. G. (2005). Peer victimization and social anxiety in adolescence: A prospective study. Aggressive Behavior, 31, 437–452. doi: 10.1002/ab.20093.Google Scholar
  280. Storch, E. A., Phil, M., Nock, M. K., Masia-Warner, C., & Barlas, M. E. (2003c). Peer victimization and social-psychological adjustment in Hispanic and African American children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 439–452. doi: 10.1023/A:1026016124091.Google Scholar
  281. Strauss, C. C., Lahey, B. B., Frick, P., Frame, C. L., & Hynd, G. W. (1988). Peer social status of children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 137–141. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.56.1.137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Sweeting, H., Young, R., West, P., & Der, G. (2006). Peer victimization and depression in early-mid adolescence: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 577–594. doi: 10.1348/000709905X49890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Tackett, J. L. (2006). Evaluating models of the personality-psychopathology relationship in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 584–599. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.04.003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Thapar, A., Harold, G., Rice, F., Langley, K., & O’Donovan, M. (2007). The contribution of gene-environment interaction to psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 989–1004. doi: 10.1017/S0954579407000491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., Roberson-Nay, R., & Tervo, K. (2003). Parenting behaviors in parents with anxiety disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 541–554. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00028-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Townsley, R. M. (1990). Social phobia: Relationship to shyness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 497–505. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(90)90136-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. van Brakel, A. M. L., Muris, P., Bogels, S. M., & Thomassen, C. (2006). A multifactorial model for the etiology of anxiety in non-clinical adolescents: Main and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition, attachment and parental rearing. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 569–579. doi: 10.1007/s10826-006-9061-x.Google Scholar
  288. van der Bruggen, C. O., Bögels, S. M., & van Zeilst, N. (2010). What influences parental controlling behaviour? The role of parent and child trait anxiety. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 141–149. doi: 10.1080/02699930802618843.Google Scholar
  289. VanderWeele, T. J., Hawkley, L. C., Thisted, R. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). A marginal structural model analysis for loneliness: Implications for intervention trials and clinical practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 225–235. doi: 10.1037/a0022610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Verduin, T. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). Peer perceptions and liking of children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 459–469. doi: 10.1007/s10802-007-9192-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Vernberg, E. M., Abwender, D. A., Ewell, K. K., & Beery, S. H. (1992). Social anxiety and peer relationships in early adolescence: A prospective analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 189–196. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2102_11.Google Scholar
  292. Verstraeten, K., Vasey, M. W., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2009). Temperament and risk of depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediation by rumination and moderation by effortful control. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 349–361. doi: 10.1017/s10802-008-9293-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Viana, A. G., Rabian, B., & Beidel, D. C. (2008). Self-report measures in the study of comorbidity in children and adolescents with social phobia: Research and clinical utility. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 781–792. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.08.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Warren, S. L., Huston, L., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 637–644. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199705000-00014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Watson, D., Gamez, W., & Simms, L. J. (2005). Basic dimensions of temperament and their relation to anxiety and depression: A symptom-based perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 46–66. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2004.09.006.Google Scholar
  296. Watson, D., & Naragon-Gainey, K. (2010). On the specificity of positive emotional dysfunction in psychopathology: Evidence from the mood and anxiety disorders and schizophrenia/schizotypy. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 839–848. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Weissman, M. M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Merikangas, K. R., Bruder, G. E., et al. (2004). Offspring at high risk for anxiety and depression: Preliminary findings from a three-generation study. In J. M. Gorman (Ed.), Fear and anxiety: The benefits of translational research (pp. 65–83). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  298. Weissman, M. M., Wickramaratne, P., Nomura, Y., Warner, V., Pilowsky, D., & Verdeli, H. (2006). Offspring of depressed parents: 20 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1001–1008. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org.Google Scholar
  299. Wetter, E. K., & Hankin, B. L. (2009). Mediational pathways through which positive and negative emotionality contribute to anhedonic symptoms of depression: A prospective study of adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 507–520. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9299-z.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Wierzbicki, M., & McCabe, M. (1988). Social skills and subsequent depressive symptomatology in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 203–208.Google Scholar
  301. Wilson, S., & Durbin, C. E. (2010). Effects of paternal depression on fathers’ parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 167–180. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.10.007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Wittchen, H.-U., Stein, M. B., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Social fears and social phobia in a community sample of adolescents and young adults: Prevalence, risk factors, and co-morbidity. Psychological Medicine, 29, 309–323. doi: 10.1017/S0033291798008174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Piacentini, J. C., & Sigman, M. (2009). One-year follow-up of family versus child CBT for anxiety disorders: Exploring the roles of child age and parental intrusiveness. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 301–316. doi: 10.1007/s10578-009-0127-z.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical, findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 134–151. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Woods, S., Done, J., & Kalsi, H. (2009). Peer victimization and internalizing difficulties: The moderating role of friendship quality. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 293–308. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.03.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Young, J. F., Gallop, R., & Mufson, L. (2009). Mother-child conflict and its moderating effects on depression outcomes in a preventive intervention for adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 696–704. doi: 10.1080/15374410903103577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Young, J. F., Mufson, L., & Davies, M. (2006). Impact of comorbid anxiety in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 904–912. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000222791.23927.5f.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Zahn-Waxler, C., Shirtcliff, E. A., & Marceau, K. (2008). Disorders of childhood and adolescence: Gender and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 275–303. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Zimmer-Gembeck, M., Hunter, T., & Pronk, R. (2007). A model of behaviors, peer relations and depression: Perceived social acceptance as a mediator and the divergence of perceptions. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 26, 273–302. doi: 10.1521/jscp.2007.26.3.273.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations