Advertisement

Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

, Volume 9, Issue 3–4, pp 221–255 | Cite as

Do We Know Which Interventions are Effective for Disruptive and Delinquent Girls?

  • Alison E. HipwellEmail author
  • Rolf Loeber
Article

Abstract

Disruptive and delinquent girls are not well served by the mental health and juvenile justice systems. Interventions that have been developed for the behavior problems of boys are frequently applied to girls despite growing evidence for a female-specific phenotype, developmental course, and set of risk factors from middle childhood onwards. The current review demonstrates that evidence of the effectiveness of treatments for girls with disruptive and delinquent behaviors is extremely limited, with relatively few studies including sufficient numbers of females or reporting on treatment effects by gender. However, a small body of evidence suggests that interventions specifically designed to address female behavior problems or risk factors can be effective in ameliorating disruptive and delinquent behaviors in both pre-adolescence and adolescence. Multi-modal interventions that target interacting domains of risk also show promise. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations are made for the development and evaluation of future interventions to prevent and reduce girls’ disruptive and delinquent behavior.

Keywords

treatment girls disruptive behavior delinquency 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by funding from National Institute of Mental Health (MH056630, K01MH071790, and MH66167), National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA012237), and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Susan Gillo, Mark Sembower, and Jennifer Wilson in the preparation of this paper.

References

  1. Aber J. L., Brown J. L., Jones S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention. Developmental Psychology 39: 324–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Acoca L. (1999). Investing in girls: A 21st century strategy. Juvenile Justice 6:3–13Google Scholar
  3. Alder, C. and Hunter, N. (1999). Not worse, just different?: Working with young women in the juvenile justice system. Unpublished manuscript, Criminology Department, University of Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  4. American Bar Association and National Bar Association (2001). Justice by Gender: The Lack of Appropriate Prevention, Diversion, and Treatment Alternatives for Girls in the Justice System. American Bar Association Juvenile Justice Center, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed.– Revised (DSM-III-R). Author, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson E. (1993). Sex codes and family life among poor inner-city youths. In: Wilson W. (Ed.), The Ghetto Underclass: Social Science Perspectives. Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, pp. 76–95Google Scholar
  7. Ansari A., Gouthro S., Ahmad K., Steele C. (1996). Hospital-based behavior modification program for adolescents: Evaluation and predictors of outcome. Adolescence 31:469–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Antonishak J., Repucci N. D., Mulford C. (2004), Girls in the justice system. Treatment and intervention. In: Moretti M., Odgers C., Jackson M. (Eds.), Girls and Aggression. Contributing Factors and Intervention Principles. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp. 165–180Google Scholar
  9. Artz S. (1998). Sex, Power, and the Violent School-Girl. Trifolium Books, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  10. Aseltine R. H. (1995). A reconsideration of parental and peer influences on adolescent deviance. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 36:103–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Atkins M. S., McKay M. M., Talbott E., Arvanitis P. (1996). DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: Implications and guidelines for school mental health teams. School Psychology Review 25:274–283Google Scholar
  12. Baines M., Alder C. (1996). Are girls more difficult to work with? Youth workers’ perspectives in juvenile justice and related areas. Crime and Delinquency 42:467–485Google Scholar
  13. Bardone A. M., Moffitt T., Caspi A., Dickson N. (1996). Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology 8:811–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bardone A., Moffitt T., Caspi A., Dickson N., Stanton W., Silva P. (1998). Adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with conduct disorder, depression and anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37:594–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barkley R. (1997). Defiant Children: A Clinician’s Manual for Parent Training, 2nd ed. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Barton C., Alexander J., Waldron H., Turner C., Warburton J. (1985). Generalizing treatment effect of Functional Family Therapy: Three replications. American Journal of Family Therapy 13:16–26Google Scholar
  17. Beauchaine T. P., Webster-Stratton C., Reid M. J. (2005). Mediators, moderators, and predictors of 1-year outcomes among children treated for early-onset conduct problems: A latent growth curve analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73:371–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Belknap J. (1996). The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime and Justice. Wadsworth, Belmont, CAGoogle Scholar
  19. Belknap J., Holsinger K., Dunn M. (1997). Understanding incarcerated girls: The results of a focus group study. The Prison Journal 77:381–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bergsmann I. (1989). The forgotten few: Juvenile female offenders. Federal Probation 53:73–78Google Scholar
  21. Bergsmann I. (1994). Establishing a Foundation: Just The facts. 1994 Juvenile Female Offenders Conference: A time for change. American Correctional Association, Lanham MD, pp. 3–14Google Scholar
  22. Bierman K. (1996). Integrating social-skills training interventions with parent training and family-focused support to prevent conduct disorder in high-risk populations: The fast track multi-site demonstration project. In: Ferris C., Grisso T. (Eds.), Understanding Aggressive Behavior in Children. New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 256–264Google Scholar
  23. Björkqvist K., Lagerspetz M. J., Kaukiainen A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior 18:117–127Google Scholar
  24. Björkqvist K., Niemala P. (1992). New trends in the study of female aggression. In: Björkqvist K., Niemala P. (Eds.), Of Mice and Women: Aspects of Female Aggression. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, pp. 51–64Google Scholar
  25. Blumstein A., Cohen J., Farrington D. P. (1996). Longitudinal and criminal career research: Further clarifications. In: Greenberg D. (Eds.), Criminal Careers (vol. 1). Dartmouth, Aldershot, UK, pp. 447–464Google Scholar
  26. Booth R., Zhang Y. (1997). Conduct disorder and HIV risk behaviors among runaway and homeless adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 48:69–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borduin C., Mann B., Cone L., Henggeler S., Fucci B., and Blaske D. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: Long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63:569–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brestan E., Eyberg S. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatment of conduct disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies and 5,272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 27:180–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown T. T., Barlow D. H. (1992). Comorbidity among anxiety disorders: Implications for treatment and DSM-IV. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:835–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Budnick K., Shields-Fletcher E. (1998). What About Girls? (OJJDP Fact Sheet No. 84). Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  31. Burns B. J., Landsverk J., Kelleher K., Faw L., Hazen A., Keeler G. (2001). Mental health, education, child welfare, and juvenile justice service use. In: Loeber R., Farrington D. (Eds.), Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention and Service Needs. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp. 273–304Google Scholar
  32. Cairns R. B., Cairns B. D. (1984). Predicting aggressive patterns in girls and boys: A developmental study. Aggressive Behavior 10:227–242Google Scholar
  33. Cairns R. B., Cairns B. D. (1994). Lifelines and Risks: Pathways of Youth in Our Time. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Cairns R. B., Cairns B. D., Neckerman H. J., Gariépy J. L., Ferguson L. L. (1989). Growth and aggression: I. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology 25:320–330Google Scholar
  35. Cairns R. B., Cairns B. D., Neckerman H. J., Gest S. D., Gariépy J.-L. (1988). Social networks and aggressive behavior: Peer support or peer rejection? Developmental Psychology 24:815–823Google Scholar
  36. Calhoun G., Jurgens J., Chen F. (1993). The neophyte female delinquent: A review of the literature. Adolescence 28:461–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cameron E., deBruijne L., Kennedy K., Morin J. (1994). British Columbia Teachers’ Federation Task Force on Violence in Schools: Final Repot. British Columbia Teachers’ Federation, Vancouver, BCGoogle Scholar
  38. Campbell A. (1993). Men, Women & Aggression. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Campbell S. (1991). Longitudinal studies of active and aggressive preschoolers: Individual differences in early behavior and outcomes. In: Cicchetti D, S. Toth Sheree (Eds.), Internalizing and Externalizing Expressions of Dysfunction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Hillsdale, pp. 57–89Google Scholar
  40. Carlson B. (1990). Adolescent observers of marital violence. Journal of Family Violence 5:285–299Google Scholar
  41. Carr, A. (Ed.) (2000). What Works With Children and Adolescents: A Critical Review of Psychological Interventions with Children, Adolescents and Their Families. London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  42. Cauffman E., Feldman S. S., Waterman J., Steiner H. (1998). Posttraumatic stress disorder among female juvenile offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37:1209–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chalmers J., Townsend M. (1990). The effects of training in social perspective taking on socially maladjusted girls. Child Development 61:178–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Chamberlain P., Moore K. J. (2002). Chaos and trauma in the lives of adolescent females with antisocial behavior and delinquency. Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma 6:79–108Google Scholar
  45. Chamberlain P., Reid J. (1994). Differences in risk factors and adjustment for male and female delinquents in treatment foster care. Journal of Child and Family Studies 3:23–39Google Scholar
  46. Chambless D., Hollon S. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 66:7–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chesney-Lind M. (2005). The juvenile justice system must address the needs of girls. In: Nakaya A. (Ed.), Juvenile Crime: Opposing Viewpoints. Thomson Gale, Farmington Hills, MI, pp. 178–187Google Scholar
  48. Chesney-Lind M., Brown M. (1999). Girls and violence. In: Flannery D., Huff C. (Eds.), Youth Violence: Prevention, Intervention and Social Policy. American Psychiatric Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  49. Chesney-Lind M., Frietas K. (1999). Working with Girls: Exploring Practitioner Issues, Experiences and Feelings (Rep. No. 403). University of Hawaii at Mänoa, Social Science Research Institute, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
  50. Chesney-Lind M., Okamoto S. K. (2001). Gender matters: Patterns in girls’ delinquency and gender responsive programming. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice 1:1–28Google Scholar
  51. Chisholm, P. (1997, December 8). Bad girls, 13–15Google Scholar
  52. Clarkin J., Kendall P. (1992). Comorbidity and treatment planning: Summary and future directions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:904–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Cloninger R. C., Christiansen K. O., Reich T., Gottesman I. I. (1978). Implications of sex differences in the prevalences of antisocial personality, alcoholism, and criminality for familial transmission. Archives of General Psychiatry 35:941–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Cohen J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  55. Cohen J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin 112:155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Coie, J. and Dodge, K. (1997). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In: Damon, W. (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology, 5th ed. Vol. 3: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development. (N. Eisenberg, Vol. Ed.). Wiley, New York, pp. 779–862Google Scholar
  57. Coie J., Terry R., Zakriski A., Lochman J. (1995). Early adolescent social influences on delinquent behavior. In: McCord J. (Eds.), Coercion and Punishment in Long-term Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 229–244Google Scholar
  58. Community Research Associates (1998). Female Juvenile Offenders: A Status of the States Report. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  59. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999). Initial impact of the Fast Track Prevention Trial for Conduct Problems: II Classroom effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67:648–657Google Scholar
  60. Connor D. (2002). Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Cook T., Campbell T. (1979). Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings. Rand McNally, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  62. Corrado R. R., Cohen I. M., Hart S. D., Roesch R. (2000). Diagnosing mental disorders in offenders: Conceptual and methodological issues. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 10:29–39Google Scholar
  63. Côté S., Zoccolillo M., Tremblay R. E., Nagin D., Vitaro F. (2001). Predicting girls’ conduct disorder in adolescence from childhood trajectories of disruptive behaviors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40:678–684Google Scholar
  64. Craig W. M. (2005). Commentary: The treatment of aggressive girls: Same but different? In: Pepler D. J., Madsen K. C., Webster C., Levene K. S. (Eds.), The Development and Treatment of Girlhood Aggression. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp. 217–221Google Scholar
  65. Crick N. R., Grotpeter J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development 66:710–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Dadds M., Schwartz S., Sanders M. (1987). Marital discord and treatment outcome in behavioral treatment of conduct disorders. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 55:396–403Google Scholar
  67. Dalsgaard S., Mortensen P. B., Frydenberg M., Thomsen P. H. (2002). Conduct problems, gender and adult psychiatric outcome of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 181:416–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Dembo R., Shemwell M., Guida J., Schmeidler J., Pacheco K., Seeberger W. (1998). A longitudinal study of the impact of a family empowerment intervention on juvenile offender psychosocial functioning: A first assessment. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 8:15–54Google Scholar
  69. Dembo, R., Sue, P., and Manning, D. (August, 1995). Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Social Problems, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  70. Derzon, J. and Lipsey, H. (2000). The Correspondence of Family Features with Problem, Aggressive, Criminal and Violent Behavior. Unpublished manuscript. Institute for Public Policy Studies, Vanderbilt University, NashvilleGoogle Scholar
  71. Dishion T., and Andrews D. (1995). Preventing escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: Immediate and 1-Year outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63:538–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Dishion T., Andrews D., Kavanagh K., Soberman L. (1996). Adolescent Transitions Program: Assessment and Interventions Sourcebook. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Dishion T., McCord J., and Poulin F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist 54:755–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Doob, A., Sprott J. (1998). Is the ‘quality’ of youth violence becoming more serious? Canadian Journal of Criminology 40:185–194Google Scholar
  75. Dodge K., Pettit G. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology 39:349–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Dowden C., Andrews D. (1999). What works for female offenders: A meta-analytic review. Crime and Delinquency 45:438–452Google Scholar
  77. Dumas J., Wahler R. (1983). Predictors of treatment outcome in parent training: Mother insularity and socioeconomic disadvantage. Behavioral Assessment 5:301–313Google Scholar
  78. Elias M., Gara M., Schuyler T., Branden-Muller L., Sayette M. (1991). The promotion of social competence: Longitudinal study of a preventive school-based program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 61:409–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Elliott D. S. (1994). Longitudinal research in criminology: Promise and practice. In: Weitekamp E.G., Kerner H.-J. (Eds.), Cross-National Longitudinal Research on Human Development and Criminal Behavior. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 189–201Google Scholar
  80. Eme R. F. (1992). Selective female affliction in the developmental disorders of childhood: A literature review. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 21:354–364Google Scholar
  81. Eron L. D. (1992). Gender differences in violence: Biology and/or socialization? Bjorkqvist K., Niemela P. (Eds.), Of Mice and Women: Aspects of Female Aggression. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, pp. 89–97Google Scholar
  82. Farrell A. D., Meyer A. L. (1997). The effectiveness of a school-based curriculum for reducing violence among urban sixth grade students. American Journal of Public Health 87:979–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Farrington D. P., Barnes G., and Lambert S. (1996). The concentration of offending in families. Legal and Criminological Psychology 1:47–63Google Scholar
  84. Farrington, D. P., and Painter, K. A. (2002). Gender Differences in Offending: Implications for Risk-focused Prevention. Unpublished report to the Home Office, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  85. Federal Bureau of Investigation (1999). US Department of Justice, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  86. Fonagy P., Target M., Cottrell D., Phillips J., Kurtz Z. (2002). What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Treatments for Children and Adolescents. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. Frey K., Hirschstein M., Snell J., Edstrom L., MacKenzie E. Broderick C. (2005). Reducing playground bullying and supporting beliefs: An experimental trial of the steps to respect program. Developmental Psychology 41:479–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Frick P. J., O’Brien B. S., Wootton J. M., McBurnett K. (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 103:700–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ge X., Lorenz F., Conger R., Elder G., and Simons R. (1994). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology 30:467–483Google Scholar
  90. Gil E. (1996). Treating Abused Adolescents. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  91. Gorman-Smith, D. (2003). Prevention of antisocial behavior in females. In Farrington, D. P. and Coid, J. (Eds.), Primary Prevention of Antisocial Behavior. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  92. Gottsfredson G. (1987). Peer group interventions to reduce risk of delinquent behavior: A selective review and new evaluation. Criminology 25:671–714Google Scholar
  93. Guerra N., Slaby R. (1990). Cognitive mediators of aggression in adolescent offenders: II. Intervention. Developmental Psychology 26:269–277Google Scholar
  94. Hartung C. M., Widiger T. A. (1998). Gender differences in the diagnosis of mental disorders: Conclusions and controversies of the DSM-IV. Psychological Bulletin 123:260–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hartup W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development 67:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Heide K. M. (2003). Youth homicide: A review of the literature and a blueprint for action. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 47:6–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Henggeler S., Edwards J., Borduin C. (1987). The family relations of female juvenile delinquents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 15:199–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Henggeler S., Melton G., Smith L., Schoenwald S., Hanley J. (1993). Family preservation using multisystemic treatment: Long-term follow-up to a clinical trial with serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Child & Family Studies 24:283–293Google Scholar
  99. Henggeler S., Rodick J., Borduin D., Hanson C., Watson S., Urey J. (1986). Multisystemic treatment of juvenile offenders: Effects on adolescent behavior and family interaction. Developmental Psychology 22:132–141Google Scholar
  100. Henington C., Hughes J., Cavell T., Thompson B. (1998). The role of relational aggression in identifying aggressive boys and girls. Journal of School Psychology 36:457–477Google Scholar
  101. Hintze, J. (2004) Number Cruncher Statistical Systems (NCSS) and Power and Sample Size (PASS). Kaysville, Utah. www.ncss.comGoogle Scholar
  102. Hipwell A., Loeber R., Stouthamer-Loeber M., Keenan K., White H. R., Kroneman L. (2002). Characteristics of girls with early onset disruptive and antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 12:99–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Howell J. C. (1995). Guide for Implementing the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent and Chronic Offenders. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  104. Howell J. C. (2003). Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: A Comprehensive Framework. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  105. Hudley C., Graham S. (1993). An attributional intervention to reduce peer-directed aggression among African-American boys. Child Development 64:124–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Huesmann L. R., Eron L. D., Lefkowitz M. M., Walder L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology 20:1120–1134Google Scholar
  107. Jasper A., Smith C., Bailey S. (1998). One hundred girls in care referred to an adolescent forensic mental health service. Journal of Adolescence 21:555–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Jones M., Offord D., Abrams N. (1980). Brothers, sisters and antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. In: Pepler D., Rubin K. (Eds.), The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp. 31–54Google Scholar
  109. Kataoka S., Zima B., Dupre D., Moreno K., Yang X., McCracken J. (2001). Mental health problems and service use among female juvenile offenders: Their relationship to criminal history. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 40:549–555Google Scholar
  110. Kavanagh K., Hops H. (1994). Good girls? Bad boys? Gender and development as contexts for diagnosis and treatment. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology 16:45–79Google Scholar
  111. Kazdin A. (1987). Treatment of antisocial behavior in children: Current status and future directions. Psychological Bulletin 102:187–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kazdin A. (1995). Child, parent and family dysfunction as predictors of outcome in cognitive-behavioral treatment for antisocial children. Behaviour Research & Therapy 33:271–281Google Scholar
  113. Kazdin A. (1996). Combined and multimodel treatments in child and adolescent psychotherapy: Issues, challenges, and research directions. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice 3:69–100Google Scholar
  114. Kazdin A. (2000). Perceived barriers to treatment participation and treatment acceptability among antisocial children and their families. Journal of Child and Family Studies 9:157–174Google Scholar
  115. Kazdin A. (2001). Treatment of conduct disorders. In: Hill J., Maughan B. (Eds.), Conduct Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 408–448Google Scholar
  116. Kazdin A. (2003). Clinical significance: Measuring whether interventions make a difference. In: Kazdin A. (Eds.), Methodological issues & strategies in clinical research. (3rd ed.). American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 691–710Google Scholar
  117. Kazdin A., Crowley M. J. (1997). Moderators of treatment outcome in cognitively based treatment of antisocial children. Cognitive Therapy & Research 21:185–207Google Scholar
  118. Kazdin A., Siegel T., Bass D. (1992). Cognitive problem-solving skills training and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior in children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 60:733–747Google Scholar
  119. Kazdin A., Wassell G. (1999). Barriers to treatment participation and therapeutic change among children referred for conduct disorder. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 28:160–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kazdin A., Weisz J. (1998). Identifying and empirically supported child and adolescent treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 66:19–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kazdin A., Whitley M. K. (2003). Treatment of parental stress to enhance therapeutic change among children referred for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 71:504–515Google Scholar
  122. Keenan K., Loeber R., Green S. M. (1999). Conduct disorder in girls: A review of the literature. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 2:3–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Keenan K., Shaw D. S. (1994). The development of aggression in toddlers: A study of low-income families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 22:53–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kellam S., Ling X., Merisca R., Brown C., Ialongo N. (1998). The effect of the level of aggression in the first grade classroom on the course and malleability of aggressive behavior into middle school. Development and Psychopathology 10:165–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kersten J. (1990). A gender specific look at patterns of violence in juvenile institutions: or are girls really “more difficult to handle?” International Journal of the Sociology of Law 18:473–493Google Scholar
  126. Kolko D., Parrish J., Wilson F. (1985). Obstacles to appointment keeping in a child behavior management clinic. Child & Family Behavior Therapy 7:9–15Google Scholar
  127. Kraemer H., Theimann S. (1987). How Many Subjects: Statistical Power Analysis in Research. Sage Publications, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  128. Krueger R. F., Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Bleske A., Silva P. A. (1998). Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: Developmental and methodological implications. Behavior Genetics 28:173–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lahey B., Applegate B., Barkley R., Garfinkel B., McBurnett K., Kerdyk L. (1994). DSM-IV field trials for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry 151:1163–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lahey B., Loeber R., Hart E., Frick P., Applegate B., Zhang Q. (1995). Four-year longitudinal study of conduct disorder in boys: Patterns and predictors of persistence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 104:83–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lahey B., Loeber R., Quay H., Applegate B., Shaffer D., Waldman I. (1998). Validity of DSM-IV subtypes for conduct disorder based on age of onset. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 37:435–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lanctôt N., LeBlanc M. (2002). Explaining deviance by adolescent females. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 29:113–202Google Scholar
  133. Lee V., Burkham D., Zimiles H., Ladewski B. (1994). Family-structure and its effect on behavioral and emotional-problems in young adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence 4:405–437Google Scholar
  134. Leschied A., Cummings A., Van Brunschot M., Cunningham A., Saunders A. (2001). Aggression in adolescent girls: Implications for policy, prevention and treatment. Canadian Psychology 42:200–215Google Scholar
  135. Leve L., Chamberlain P., Reid J. (2005). Intervention outcomes for girls referred from juvenile justice: Effects on delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73:1181–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Levene, K., Augimeri, L., Pepler, D., Walsh, M., Webster, C., and Koegl, C. (2001). Early Assessment Risk List for Girls (EARL-21G), Version 1 – Consultation Edition. Earlscourt Child and Family Centre, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  137. Lewis D., Yeager C., Cobham-Portorreal C., Klein N. (1991). A follow-up of female delinquents: Maternal contributions to the perpetuation of deviance. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 30:197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lochman J. (1992). Cognitive-behavioral intervention with aggressive boys: Three-year follow-up and preventive effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:426–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lochman J. E., Wells K. C. (1996). A social-cognitive intervention with aggressive children: Prevention effects and contextual implementation issues. In: Peters R., McMahon J. (Eds.), Preventing Childhood Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Delinquency. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, pp. 111–143Google Scholar
  140. Loeber R. (2004). Delinquency Prevention in a Mental Health Context. Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  141. Loeber, R., and Farrington, D. P. (Eds.) (1998), Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  142. Loeber, R., and Farrington, D. P. (Eds.) (2001). Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention and Service Needs. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  143. Loeber R., Hay D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology 48:371–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Loeber R., Keenan K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review 14:497–523Google Scholar
  145. Loeber R., Stouthamer-Loeber M. (1986). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In: Tonry M., Morris N. (Eds.), Crime and Justice, Vol. 7. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 29–149Google Scholar
  146. Maccoby E. E., Snow M. E., Jacklin C. N. (1984). Children’s dispositions and mother–child interaction at 12 and 18 months: A short-term longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology 20:459–472Google Scholar
  147. Mannuzza S., Gittelman R. (1984). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive girls. Psychiatry Research 13:19–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. McCabe K., Lansing A., Garland A., Hough R. (2002). Gender differences in psychopathology, functional impairment, and familial risk factors among adjudicated delinquents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47:860–868Google Scholar
  149. McCart M., Priester P., Davies H., Azen R. (2006). Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-training and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 34:527–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. McCord J. (1979). Some child-rearing antecedents of criminal behavior in adult men. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:1477–1486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. McCord J. (1992). The Cambridge–Somerville Study: A pioneering longitudinal-experimental study of delinquency prevention. In: McCord J., Tremblay R. (Eds.), Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions from Birth to Adolescence. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 196–209Google Scholar
  152. McGee R., Feehan M., Williams S., Anderson J. (1992). DSM-III disorders from age 11 to 15 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 31:50–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. McMahon R., Wells K. (1998). Conduct problems. In: Mash E., Barkley R. (Eds.), Treatment of Childhood Disorders (2nd ed.). Guilford Press, New York, pp. 111–207Google Scholar
  154. Mezzich A., Tarter R., Giancola P., Kirisci L., Parks S. (1997). Substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 44:157–166Google Scholar
  155. Miller J. (1994). Race, gender and juvenile justice: An examination of disposition decision-making for delinquent girls. In: Schwartz M., Milovanovic D. (Eds.), The Intersection of Race, Gender and Class in Criminology. Garland Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  156. Moffitt T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review 100:674–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Moffitt T. E., Caspi A., Rutter M., Silva P. A. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  158. Moretti M., Odgers C. (2002). Aggressive and violent girls: Prevalence, profiles and contributing factors. In: Corrado R., Roesch R., Hart S., Gierowski J. (Eds.), Multi-problem Violent Youth: A Foundation for Comparative Research on Needs, Interventions and Outcomes. IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp. 116–129Google Scholar
  159. National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, (2001). Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment and Control. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  160. Nock M. K. (2003). Progress review of the psychosocial treatment of child conduct problems. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice 10:1–28Google Scholar
  161. Nugent W. R., Bruley C., Allen P. (1999). The effects of aggression replacement training on male and female antisocial behaviour in a runaway shelter. Research on Social Work Practice 9:466–482Google Scholar
  162. Odgers C. L., Moretti M. M. (2002). Aggressive and antisocial girls: Research update and challenges. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 1:103–119Google Scholar
  163. O’Donnell C. (1992). The interplay of theory and practice in delinquency prevention: From behavior modification to activity settings. In: McCord J., Tremblay R. (Eds.), Preventing Antisocial Behavior: Interventions from Birth Through Adolescence. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 209–232Google Scholar
  164. Offord D. R., Adler R. J., Boyle M. H. (1986). Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of conduct disorder. American Journal of Social Psychiatry 4:272–278Google Scholar
  165. Offord D., Boyle M., Racine Y. (1991). The epidemiology of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. In: Pepler D., Rubin K. (Eds.), The Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp. 31–54Google Scholar
  166. Offord D. R., Boyle M. H., Racine Y. A., Fleming J. E. (1992). Outcome, prognosis, and risk in a longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 31:916–923Google Scholar
  167. Okamoto S., Chesney-Lind M. (2000). The relationship between gender and practitioners’ fear in working with high-risk adolescents. Child and Youth Care Forum 29:373–383Google Scholar
  168. Olson S., Hoza B. (1993). Preschool developmental antecedents of conduct problems in children beginning school. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 22:60–67Google Scholar
  169. Owen, B., and Bloom, B. (1998). Modeling Gender-Specific Services in Juvenile Justice: Policy and Program Recommendations. Final report submitted to the Office of Criminal Justice Planning of the State of CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  170. Pajer K. (1998). What happens to bad girls? A review of the adult outcomes of antisocial adolescent girls. American Journal of Psychiatry 155:862–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Pakaslahti L., Spoof I., Asplund-Peltola R. L., Keltikangas-Javinen L. (1998). Parents’ social problem-solving strategies in families with aggressive and non-aggressive girls. Aggressive Behavior 24:37–51Google Scholar
  172. Papageorgiou V., Vostanis P. (2000). Psychosocial characteristics of Greek young offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry 11:390–400Google Scholar
  173. Paquette J., Underwood M. (1999). Gender differences in young adolescents’ experiences of peer victimization: Social and physical aggression. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 45:242–266Google Scholar
  174. Patterson, G. (1982). A Social Learning Approach , Vol. 3: Coercive family process, Castalia, EugeneGoogle Scholar
  175. Patterson G., DeBaryshe B., Ramsey E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist 44:329–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Patterson G., Dishion T. (1985). Contributions of families and peers to delinquency. Criminology 23:63–80Google Scholar
  177. Patterson G., Chamberlain P. (1994). A functional analysis of resistance during parent training therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1:53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Patterson G. R, Forgatch M. (1995). Predicting future clinical adjustment from treatment outcome and process variables. Psychological Assessment 7:275–285Google Scholar
  179. Pepler D. J., Craig W. M. (1995). A peek behind the fence: Naturalistic observations of aggressive children with remote audiovisual recording. Developmental Psychology 31:548–553Google Scholar
  180. Pepler D., Craig W., Roberts W. (1995). Aggression in the peer group: Assessing the negative socialization process. In: McCord J. (Eds.), Coercion and Punishment in Long-term Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 213–228Google Scholar
  181. Pepler D. J., Walsh M. M., Levene K. S. (2004). Intervention for aggressive girls. Tailoring and measuring the fit. In: Moretti M. M., Odgers C. L., Jackson M. A. (Eds.), Girls and Aggression. Contributing Factors and Intervention Principles. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp. 131–145Google Scholar
  182. Piquero, A., Brezina, T., and Turner, M. (2003). Testing Moffit’s Account of Delinquency Abstention. Unpublished Manuscript, University of FloridaGoogle Scholar
  183. Pliszka S., Sherman J., Barrow M., Irick S. (2000). Affective disorder in juvenile offenders: a preliminary study. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:130–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Poe-Yamagata E., Butts J. (1995). Female Offenders in the Juvenile Justice System. National Center for Juvenile Justice, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  185. Poulin F., Dishion T., Burraston B. (2001). 3-Year iatrogenic effects associated with aggregating high-risk adolescents in cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions. Applied Developmental Science 5:214–224Google Scholar
  186. Prinz R. J., Miller G. E. (1994). Family-based treatment for childhood antisocial behavior: Experimental influences on dropout and engagement. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 62:645–650Google Scholar
  187. Prior M., Smart D., Sanson A., Oberklaid F. (1993). Sex differences in psychological adjustment from infancy to 8 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 32:291–304Google Scholar
  188. Pulkkinen L. (1992). The path to adulthood for aggressively inclined girls. In: Bjorkqvist K., Niemela P. (Eds.),Of Mice and Women: Aspects of Female Aggression. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 113–121Google Scholar
  189. Quinton D., Pickles A., Maughan B., Rutter M. (1993). Partners, peers, and pathways: Assortative pairing and continuities in conduct disorder. Development & Psychopathology 5:763–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Reebye P., Moretti M. M., Wiebe V. J., Lessard J. C. (2000). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents with conduct disorder: Sex differences and onset patterns. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 45:746–751Google Scholar
  191. Robins L. (1986). The consequences of conduct disorder in girls. In: Olweus D., Block J., Radke-Yarrow M. (Eds.), Development of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior: Research, Theories and Issues. Academic Press, Orlando, pp. 385–414Google Scholar
  192. Robbins P., Monahan J., Silver E. (2003). Mental disorder, violence, and gender. Law and Human Behavior 27:561–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Ross R., McKay B. (1976). A study of institutional treatment programs. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology 20:165–173Google Scholar
  194. Rowe D. C., Vazsonyi A., Flannery D (1995). Ethnic and racial similarity in developmental process: A study of academic achievement. Psychological Science 6:33–38Google Scholar
  195. Rutter M (1972). Maternal deprivation reconsidered. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 16:241–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Savin-Williams R., Berndt T. (1990). Friendship and peer relations. In: Feldman S., Elliot G. (Eds.), At the Threshold: The Developing Adolescent. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 277–307Google Scholar
  197. Schwartz D., McFayden-Ketchum S., Dodge K., Pettit G., Bates J. (1998). Peer group victimization as a predictor of children’s behavior problems at home and in school. Development & Psychopathology 10:87–99Google Scholar
  198. Sedlmeier P., Gigerenzer G. (1989). Do studies of statistical power have an effect on the power of studies? Psychological Bulletin 105:309–316Google Scholar
  199. Seltzer T. (2005). Mentally ill youth should not be placed in the juvenile justice system. In: Nakaya A. (Eds.), Juvenile crime: Opposing Viewpoints. Thomson Gale, Farmington Hills, MI, pp. 168–177Google Scholar
  200. Serbin L., Peters P. L., McAffer V. J., Schwartzman A. E. (1991). Childhood aggression and withdrawal as predictors of adolescent pregnancy, early parenthood, and environmental risk for the next generation. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science 23:318–331Google Scholar
  201. Shea M., Widiger T., Klein M. (1992). Comorbidity of personality disorders and depression: Implications for treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:857–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Shorter A., Schaffner L., Shick S., Frappier N. (1996). Out of Sight, Out of Mind: The Plight of Girls in the San Francisco Juvenile Justice System. Center for Juvenile and Criminal Justice, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  203. Siegel L., Senna J. (2000). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. (7th Ed.). Wadsworth, Belmont, CAGoogle Scholar
  204. Silverthorn P., Frick P. J. (1999). Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: The delayed-onset pathway in girls. Development and Psychopathology 11:101–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Snyder H., Sickmund M. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  206. Stahl (1999). Offenders in Juvenile Court, 1996. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin, NCJ 175719, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  207. Stattin H., and Magnusson D. (1990). Pubertal Maturation in Female Development. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  208. Steffensmeier D., Allan E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology 22:459–487Google Scholar
  209. Steffensmeier D., Schwartz J., Zhong H., Ackerman J. (2005). An assessment of recent trends in girls’ violence using diverse longitudinal sources: Is the gender gap closing? Criminology 43:355–404Google Scholar
  210. Stewart D., Trupin E. (2003). Clinical utility and policy implications of a statewide mental health screening process for juvenile offenders. Psychiatric Services 54:377–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Tate D., Reppucci N., Mulvey E. (1995). Violent juvenile delinquents. American Psychologist 50:777–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Taylor T., Biglan A. (1998). Behavioral family interventions for improving child-rearing: A review of the literature for clinicians and policy makers. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 1:41–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Teplin L., Abram K., McClelland G., Dulcan M., Mericle A. (2002). Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Archives of General Psychiatry 59:1133–1143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Teplin, L., Abram, K., McClelland, G., Mericle, A., Dulcan, M., and Washburn, J. (2006). Psychiatric Disorders of Youth in Detention. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Bulletin, NCJ 210331, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  215. Timmons-Mitchell J., Brown C., Schultz S. C., Webster S. E., Underwood L. A., Semple W. E. (1997). Comparing the mental health needs of female and male incarcerated juvenile delinquents. Behavioral Sciences & The Law 15:195–202Google Scholar
  216. Tremblay R., Japel C., Perusse D., McDuff P., Boivin M., Zoccolillo M., and Montplaisir J. (1999). The search for the age of ‘onset’ of physical aggression: Rousseau and Bandura revisited. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health 9:8–23Google Scholar
  217. Tremblay R., Masse B., Perron D., LeBlanc M. (1992). Early disruptive behavior, poor school achievement, delinquent behavior, and delinquent personality: Longitudinal analyses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 60:64–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Tremblay R., Pagani-Kurtz L., Masse L. C., Vitaro F., Pihl R. (1995). A bimodal preventive intervention for disruptive kindergarten boys: Its impact through mid-adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63:560–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Trupin E., Stewart D., Beach B., Boesky L. (2002). Effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy program for incarcerated female juvenile offenders. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 7:121–127Google Scholar
  220. Tubman J., Windle M., Windle R. (1996). Cumulative sexual intercourse patterns among middle adolescents: Problem behavior precursors and concurrent health risk behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health 18:182–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Ulzen P., Hamilton H. (1998). The nature and characteristics of psychiatric comorbidity in incarcerated adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 43:57–63Google Scholar
  222. Underwood M. K. (2003). Social Aggression Among Girls. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  223. Underwood M. K., Coie J. D. (2004). Future directions and priorities for prevention and intervention. In: Putallaz M., Bierman K. (eds) Aggression, Antisocial Behavior, and Violence Among Girls. Guilford, New York, pp. 289–301Google Scholar
  224. US Department of Health and Human Services (1996). National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect. Author, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  225. US Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. Author, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  226. Vaillancourt, T., Côté, S., Farhat, A., Boulerice, B., Boivin, M., and Tremblay, R. (July, 2002). The development of indirect aggression among Canadian children. Paper Presented at: XV World Meeting, International Society for Research on Aggression (ISRA), Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  227. Verhulst F., van der Ende J. (1993). Factors associated with child mental health service use in the community. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 36:901–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Vermeiren R., De Clippele A., Deboutte D. (2000). A descriptive survey of Flemish delinquent adolescents. Journal of Adolescence 23:277–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Viale-Val G., Sylvester C. (1993). Female delinquency. In: Sugar M. (Eds.), Female Adolescent Development, 2nd ed. Brunner/Mazel, Inc., Philadelphia, pp. 169–191Google Scholar
  230. Walsh M., Pepler D., Levene K. (2002). A model intervention for girls with disruptive behavior problems: The Earlscourt Girls Connection. Canadian Journal of Counseling 36:297–311Google Scholar
  231. Wasserman G., Seracini A. (2001). Family risk factors and family treatments for early-onset offending. In: Loeber R., Farrington D. P. (Eds.), Child Delinquents. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp. 165–190Google Scholar
  232. Webster-Stratton C. (1985). Predictors of treatment outcome in parent training for conduct disordered children. Behavior Therapy 16:223–243Google Scholar
  233. Webster-Stratton C. (1996). Early-onset conduct problems: Does gender make a difference? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64:540–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Webster-Stratton C., Taylor T. (2001). Nipping early risk factors in the bud: Preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0 to 8 years). Prevention Science 2:165–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Weiss B., Caron A., Ball S., Tapp J., Johnson M., Weisz J. (2005). Iatrogenic effects of group treatment for antisocial youth. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 73:1036–1044Google Scholar
  236. Wells C. (2001). The treatment of severe antisocial behavior in young people. In: Baruch G. (Eds.), Community-based Psychotherapy with Young People: Evidence and Innovation in Practice. Brunner-Routledge, New York, pp. 128–141Google Scholar
  237. Wells P., Faragher B. (1993). In-patient treatment of 165 adolescents with emotional and conduct disorders: A study of outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry. 162:345–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Werner E., Smith R. (1992). Overcoming the Odds: High Risk Children from Birth to Adulthood. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USGoogle Scholar
  239. White J., Moffitt T., Earls F., Robins L., Silva P. (1990). How early can we tell: Predictors of childhood conduct disorder and adolescent delinquency. Criminology 28:507–534Google Scholar
  240. Whitmore E., Mikulich S., Ehlers K., Crowley T. (2000). One-year outcome of adolescent females referred for conduct disorder and substance abuse/dependence. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 59:131–141Google Scholar
  241. Widom C. (2001). Child abuse and neglect. In: White S. (Eds.), Handbook of Youth and Justice. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 31–47Google Scholar
  242. Windle M. (1990). A longitudinal study of antisocial behaviors in early adolescence as predictors of late adolescent substance use: Gender and ethnic group differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 99:86–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Xie H., Cairns B., Cairns R. (2005). The development of aggressive behaviors among girls: Measurement issues, social functions, and differential trajectories. In: Pepler D., Madsen K., Webster C., Levene K. (Eds.), The Development and Treatment of Girlhood Aggression. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp. 105–136Google Scholar
  244. Xie H., Swift D., Cairns B., Cairns R. (2002). Aggressive behaviors in social interaction and developmental adaptation: A narrative analysis of interpersonal conflicts during early adolescence. Social Development 11:205–224Google Scholar
  245. Zahn-Waxler C. (1993). Warriors and worriers: Gender & psychopathology. Development & Psychopathology 5:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Zahn-Waxler C., Cole P., Barrett K. (1991). Guilt and empathy: Sex differences and implications for the development of depression. In: Garber J., Dodge K. (Eds.), The Development of Emotion Regulation and Dysregulation. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 243–272Google Scholar
  247. Zoccolillo M., Pickles A., Quinton D., Rutter M. (1992). The outcome of childhood conduct disorder: Implications for defining adult personality disorder and conduct disorder. Psychological Medicine 22:971–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Zoccolillo M., Tremblay R., Vitaro F. (1996). DSM-III-R and DSM-III criteria for conduct disorder in preadolescent girls: Specific but insensitive. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 35:461–470Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute & ClinicUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations