Child & Youth Care Forum

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 849–864 | Cite as

Further Evaluation of Factors Associated with Restrictive Housing Among Detained Youth

  • Paula J. FiteEmail author
  • Casey A. Pederson
  • Rebecca L. Griffith
Original Paper



Although there are concerns regarding the use of restrictive housing with detained youth, little research has examined factors that contribute to youth risk for restrictive housing.


The current study examined whether perceived containment and contextual factors (i.e., peer delinquency, neighborhood problems, stressful life events, and parental psychological control) were predictive of levels of restrictive housing (i.e., Tier 2 and Tier 3) in a sample of detained youth.


Youth self-reports of constructs were examined as predictors of levels of restrictive housing.


Analyses indicated that while peer delinquency was only associated with Tier 2 intervention (i.e., day room restriction), perceived containment and neighborhood problems were only associated with Tier 3 intervention (i.e., lockdowns and restraints). Neither stressful life events nor parental psychological control were associated with any restrictive housing outcome. Finally, the number of days in detention were robustly positively associated with all restrictive housing outcomes examined.


Findings suggest that factors beyond the facility (e.g., neighborhood environment, peer groups) may have a meaningful impact on behavior while detained.


Restrictive housing Perceived containment Neighborhood problems Peer delinquency 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87.Google Scholar
  2. Albrecht, A. K., Galambos, N. L., & Jansson, S. M. (2007). Adolescents’ internalizing and aggressive behaviors and perceptions of parents’ psychological control: A panel study examining direction of effects. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 673–684.Google Scholar
  3. Aneshensel, C. S., & Sucoff, C. A. (1996). The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 293–310. Scholar
  4. Aseltine, R. H., Gore, S., & Gordon, J. (2000). Life stress, anger, anxiety, and delinquency: An empirical test of general strain theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 265–275.Google Scholar
  5. Astor, J. H., Fagan, T. J., & Shapiro, D. (2018). The effects of restrictive housing on the psychological functioning of inmates. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 24(1), 8–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67, 3296–3319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., et al. (2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(1), 4–16.Google Scholar
  10. Cavell, T. A. (2000). Working with parents of aggressive children: A practitioner’s guide. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Chen, M. S., & Foshee, V. A. (2015). Stressful life events and the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(3), 696–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Coxe, S., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2009). The analysis of count data: A gentle introduction to poisson regression and its alternatives. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 121–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dodge, K. A., Dishion, T. J., & Lansford, J. E. (Eds.). (2007). Deviant peer influences in programs for youth: Problems and solutions. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Doll, C., McLaughlin, T. F., & Barretto, A. (2013). The token economy: A recent review and evaluation. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 2(1), 131–149.Google Scholar
  15. Dumas, J., LaFreniere, P. J., & Serketich, W. J. (1995). “Balance of power”: A transactional analysis of control in mother-child dyads involving socially competent, aggressive, and anxious children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 104–113. Scholar
  16. Eitle, D., Gunkel, S., & Van Gundy, K. (2004). Cumulative exposure to stressful life events and male gang membership. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(2), 95–111.Google Scholar
  17. Eitle, D., & Turner, R. J. (2002). Exposure to community violence and young adult crime: The effects of witnessing violence, traumatic victimization, and other stressful life events. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39(2), 214–237.Google Scholar
  18. Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33(4), 389–426.Google Scholar
  19. Farrell, A. D., & Bruce, S. E. (1997). Impact of exposure to community violence on violent behavior and emotional distress among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26(1), 2–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fauth, R. C., Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). Short-term effects of moving from public housing in poor to middle-class neighborhoods on low-income, minority adults’ outcomes. Social Science and Medicine, 59(11), 2271–2284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fernandez, M., McClain, D., Brown-Williams, B., & Ellison, P. (2015). PBIS in Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice: Data dashboard and radar reports utilized for team data-based decision-making with facility team leader perspectives. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 32, 334–343.Google Scholar
  22. Fite, P. J., Colder, C. R., Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2008). The relation between childhood proactive and reactive aggression and substance use initiation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(2), 261–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fite, P. J., Gabrielli, J., Cooley, J. L., Haas, S. M., Frazer, A., Rubens, S. L., et al. (2014). Hope as a moderator of the associations between common risk factors and frequency of substance use. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 653–662.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Fite, P. J., Pederson, C. A., & DiPierro, M. (2018). Individual risk factors associated with increased levels of restricted housing among detained youth. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 35, 139–154.Google Scholar
  25. Fite, P. J., Poquiz, J., Cooley, J., Stoppelbein, L., Becker, S. P., Luebbe, A., et al. (2016). Risk factors associated with proactive and reactive aggression in a child psychiatric inpatient sample. Journal of Psychopath and Behavioral Assessment, 38, 56–65.Google Scholar
  26. Fite, P. J., Preddy, T., Vitulano, M., Elkins, S., Grassetti, S., & Wimsatt, A. (2012). Perceived best friend delinquency moderates the link between contextual risk factors and juvenile delinquency. Journal of Community Psychology, 40(6), 747–761.Google Scholar
  27. Gagnon, J. C., Gurel, S., & Barber, B. R. (2017). State-level analysis of school punitive discipline practices in Florida. Behavioral Disorders, 42(2), 65–80.Google Scholar
  28. Gallagher, S. (2014). The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 585.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Gendreau, P., Listwan, S. J., Kuhns, J. B., & Exum, M. L. (2014). Making prisoners accountable: Are contingency management programs the answer? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41, 1079–1102.Google Scholar
  30. Grasso, D. J., Dierkhising, C. B., Branson, C. E., Ford, J. D., & Lee, R. (2015). Developmental patterns of adverse childhood experiences and current symptoms and impairment in youth referred for trauma-specific services. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Scholar
  31. Hart, C. H., Ladd, G. W., & Burleson, B. R. (1990). Children’s expectations of the outcomes of social strategies: Relations with sociometric status and maternal disciplinary styles. Child Development, 61, 127–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Harvard Law Review. (2017). Mending the federal sentencing guidelines approach to consideration of juvenile status. Harvard Law Review, 130, 994–1015.Google Scholar
  33. Hoffmann, J. P., & Su, S. S. (1997). The conditional effects of stress on delinquency and substance use: A strain theory assessment of sex differences. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34, 46–78.Google Scholar
  34. Ingoldsby, E. M., Shaw, D. S., Winslow, E., Schonberg, M., Gilliom, M., & Criss, M. M. (2006). Neighborhood disadvantage, parent–child conflict, neighborhood peer relationships, and early antisocial behavior problem trajectories. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 293–309. Scholar
  35. Jocson, R. M., & McLoyd, V. C. (2015). Neighborhood and housing disorder, parenting, and youth adjustment in low-income urban families. American Journal of Community Psychology, 55(3–4), 304–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kazdin, A. E., & Bootzin, R. R. (1972). The token economy: An evaluative review. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 5, 343–372.Google Scholar
  37. Kim, K. J., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Lorenz, F. O. (2003). Reciprocal influences between stressful life events and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Child Development, 74(1), 127–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kornienko, O., Dishion, T. J., & Ha, T. (2018). Peer network dynamics and the amplification of antisocial to violent behavior among young adolescents in public middle schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 26(1), 21–30.Google Scholar
  39. Kunz, J. H., & Grych, J. H. (2013). Parental psychological control and autonomy granting: Distinctions and associations with child and family functioning. Parenting: Science and Practice, 13, 77–94.Google Scholar
  40. Labrecque, R. M. (2018). Taking stock: A meta-analysis of the predictors of restrictive housing. Victims & Offenders. Scholar
  41. Loukas, A., Paulos, S. K., & Robinson, S. (2005). Early adolescent social and overt aggression: Examining the roles of social anxiety and maternal psychological control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 335–345.Google Scholar
  42. MacDonald, J. M., & Chesney-Lind, M. (2001). Gender bias and juvenile justice revisited: A multiyear analysis. Crime & Delinquency, 47(2), 173–195.Google Scholar
  43. Mercer, N., Crocetti, E., Meeus, W., & Branje, S. (2018). An experimental investigation of the influence of deviant peers on own deviancy: A replication study. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 14(3), 429–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mrug, S., & Windle, M. (2009). Mediators of neighborhood influences on externalizing behavior in preadolescent children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(2), 265–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. National Commission of Correctional Health Care. (2016). Position statement: Solitary confinement (isolation). Journal of Correctional Health Care, 22(3), 257–263. Scholar
  46. Neff, K. D., & Terry-Schmitt, L. N. (2002). Youths’ attributions for power-related gender differences: Nature, nurture, or God? Cognitive Development, 17(2), 1185–1202.Google Scholar
  47. Nelson, D. A., Hart, C. H., Yang, C., Olsen, J. A., & Jin, S. (2006). Aversive parenting in China: Associations with child physical and relational aggression. Child Development, 77, 554–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Nelson, J. R., Hurley, K. D., Synhorst, L., Epstein, M. H., Stage, S., & Buckley, J. (2009). The child outcomes of a behavior model. Exceptional Children, 76, 7–30.Google Scholar
  49. Patterson, G. R., Dishion, T. J., & Yoerger, K. (2000). Adolescent growth in new forms of problem behavior: Macro- and micro-peer dynamics. Prevention Science, 1, 3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Piquero, N. L., & Sealock, M. D. (2000). Generalizing general strain theory: An examination of an offending population. Justice Quarterly, 17, 449–484.Google Scholar
  51. Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (1999). Disorder and decay: The concept and measurement of perceived neighborhood disorder. Urban Affairs Review, 34(3), 412–432.Google Scholar
  52. Rubens, S. L., Gudino, O. G., Fite, P. J., & Grande, J. E. (2018). Individual and neighborhood stressors, sleep problems, and symptoms of anxiety and depression among Latino youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88, 161–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Schneider, W. J., Cavell, T. A., & Hughes, J. N. (2003). A sense of containment: Potential moderator of the relation between parenting practices and children’s externalizing behaviors. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 95–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Scott, T. M., Alter, P. J., Rosenberg, M., & Michael, C. (2010). Decision-making in secondary and tertiary interventions of school-wide systems of positive behavior support. Education & Treatment of Children, 33(4), 513–535. Scholar
  56. Sijtsema, J. J., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2018). Peer influence in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior: Advances from dynamic social network studies. Developmental Review, 50, 140–154.Google Scholar
  57. Smith, P. (2006). The effects of solitary confinement on prison inmates: A brief history and review of the literature. Crime and Justice, 34(1), 441–528.Google Scholar
  58. Steptoe, A., & Feldman, P. J. (2001). Neighborhood problems as sources of chronic stress: Development of a measure of neighborhood problems, and associations with socioeconomic status and health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23(3), 177–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Swearingen, E. M., & Cohen, L. H. (1985). Measurement of adolescents’ life events: The Junior High Life Experiences Survey. American Journal Community Psychology, 13, 69–85.Google Scholar
  60. U. S. Department of Justice. (2016). Report and recommendations concerning the use of restrictive housing: Final report.Google Scholar
  61. Vitaro, F., & Brendgen, M. (2012). Subtypes of aggressive behaviors: Etiologies, development, and consequences. In T. Bliesener, A. Beelmann, & M. Stemmler (Eds.), Antisocial behavior and crime: Contributions of developmental and evaluation research to prevention and intervention (pp. 17–38). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe Publishing.Google Scholar
  62. Wilson, H. W., Berent, E., Donenberg, G. R., Emerson, E. M., Rodriguez, E. M., & Sandesara, A. (2013). Trauma history and PTSD symptoms in juvenile offenders on probation. Victims & Offenders, 8, 465–477. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula J. Fite
    • 1
    Email author
  • Casey A. Pederson
    • 1
  • Rebecca L. Griffith
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Child Psychology ProgramUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations