Advertisement

A Systematic Review of the Factor Structure of Anxiety Sensitivity Among Children: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Directions

  • Sarah E. FrancisEmail author
  • Valerie A. Noël
  • Stephanie L. Ryan
Review

Abstract

Background

Child anxiety sensitivity (AS) is measured almost exclusively using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI). Yet, in the context of significant discrepancies regarding the CASI factors and how they are scored and reported, it remains unclear whether the CASI reliably and validly assesses the purported multifactorial AS construct.

Objective

This paper will: (1) provide a comprehensive summary of previous CASI factor analyses by which these factor structures were identified, (2) evaluate evidence regarding the multifactorial nature of AS in youth, and (3) discuss potential directions for continued research in this area.

Method

In a PsycInfo search, peer-reviewed studies published between 1991 and 2018 were identified for inclusion if they examined the factor structure of the CASI or reported data on the CASI subscales as administered to child participants.

Results

Findings from the 50 studies reviewed suggested that (1) the 18-item CASI does not consistently yield internally reliable assessments of specific AS facets, (2) significant discrepancies exist regarding the CASI subscales identified, the items comprising these scales, and their predictive validity in terms of anxiety, and (3) alternatives to assess the multifactorial construct of AS in youth do exist, but they have not been systematically examined in the literature.

Conclusions

Directions for future study include further examining expanded scales for AS in youth, continued study of shorter scales assessing more consistently reliable AS content, and evaluating the utility of an expanded response scale for the CASI.

Keywords

Anxiety sensitivity Child Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index Subscale Factor structure 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights Statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. *Adornetto, C., Hensdiek, M., Meyer, A., In-Albon, T., Federer, M., & Schneider, S. (2008). The factor structure of the childhood anxiety sensitivity index in german children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 39(4), 404–416.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2008.01.001.Google Scholar
  2. *Alkozei, A., Cooper, P. J., & Creswell, C. (2014). Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: Associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152–154, 219–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.014.Google Scholar
  3. *Allan, N. P., MacPherson, L., Young, K. C., Lejuez, C. W., & Schmidt, N. B. (2014). Examing the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity in adolescents using factor mixture modeling. Psychological Assessment, 26, 741–751.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036744.Google Scholar
  4. *Bernstein, A., Zvolensky, M. J., Stewart, S., & Comeau, N. (2007). Taxometric and factor analytic models of anxiety sensitivity among youth: Exploring the latent structure of anxiety psychopathology vulnerability. Behavior Therapy, 38, 269–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2006.08.005.Google Scholar
  5. *Bernstein, A., Zvolensky, M. J., Stewart, S. H., Comeau, M. N., & Leen-Feldner, E. W. (2006). Anxiety sensitivity taxonicity across gender among youth. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 679–698.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.03.011.Google Scholar
  6. *Bernstein, A., Zvolensky, M. J., Weems, C., Stickle, T., & Leen-Feldner, E. W. (2005). Taxonicity of anxiety sensitivity: An empirical test among youth. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1131–1155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2004.07.008.Google Scholar
  7. *Bilgiç, A., Tufan, A. E., Yilmaz, S., Özcan, O., Özmen, S., Öztop, D., et al. (2017). Association of reactive-proactive aggression and anxiety sensitivity with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48, 283–297.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0640-9.Google Scholar
  8. *Bilgiç, A., Türkoglu, S., Özcan, Ö., Tufan, A. E., Yilmaz, S., & Yüksel, T. (2013). Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 523–532.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0392-z.Google Scholar
  9. *Bilsky, S. A., Feldner, M. T., Knapp, A. A., Rojas, S. M., & Leen-Feldner, E. W. (2016). The roles of sex, anxious reactivity to bodily arousal, and anxiety sensitivity in coping motives for cigarette smoking among adolescents. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 24, 147–155.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pha0000071.Google Scholar
  10. Boswell, J. F., Farchione, T. J., Sauer-Zavala, S., Murray, H. W., Fortune, M. R., & Barlow, D. H. (2013). Anxiety sensitivity and interoceptive exposure: A transdiagnostic construct and change strategy. Behavior Therapy, 44, 417–431.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2013.03.006.Google Scholar
  11. *Brown, H. M., Meiser-Stedman, R., Woods, H., & Lester, K. J. (2016). Cognitive vulnerabilities for depression and anxiety in childhood: Specificity of anxiety sensitivity and rumination. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44, 30–42.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465814000472.Google Scholar
  12. *Brown, H. M., Trzaskowki, M., Zavos, H. M. S., Rijsdijk, F. V., Gregory, A. M., & Eley, T. C. (2012). Phenotypic and genetic structure of anxiety sensitivity in adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 680–688.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2012.05.001.Google Scholar
  13. *Brown, H. M., Waszczuk, M. A., Zavos, H. M. S., Trzaskowski, M., Gregory, A. M., & Eley, T. C. (2014). Cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms: A twin study of cross-sectional associations with anxiety sentivitiy dimensions across development. Psychological Medicine, 44, 3469–3480.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714000828.Google Scholar
  14. Capron, D. W., Allan, N. P., Ialongo, N. S., Leen-Feldner, E., & Schmidt, N. B. (2015). The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation. Journal of Adolescence, 41, 17–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.02.001.Google Scholar
  15. Carter, M. M., Miller, O., Jr., Sbrocco, T., Suchday, S., & Lewis, E. L. (1999). Factor structure of the anxiety sensitivity index among african american college students. Psychological Assessment, 11(4), 525–533.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.11.4.525.Google Scholar
  16. Chorpita, B. F., Albano, A. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1996). Child anxiety sensitivity index: Considerations for children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25(1), 77–82.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2501_9.Google Scholar
  17. *Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2000). Properties of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index in children with anxiety disorders: Autonomic and nonautonomic factors. Behavior Therapy, 31, 327–349.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(00)80018-0.Google Scholar
  18. *Daleiden, E., Chorpita, B. F., & Lu, W. (2000). Assessment of tripartite factors of emotion in children and adolescents II: Concurrent validity of the Affect And Arousal Scales for Children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22, 161–182.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007536507687.Google Scholar
  19. Deacon, B. J., Valentiner, D. P., Gutierrez, P. M., & Blacker, D. (2002). The anxiety sensitivity index for children: Factor structure and relation to panic symptoms in an adolescent sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 839–852.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00076-6.Google Scholar
  20. Dehon, C., Weems, C. F., Stickle, T. R., Costa, N. M., & Berman, S. L. (2005). A cross-sectional evaluation of the factorial invariance of anxiety sensitivity in adolescents and young adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 799–810.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2004.06.008.Google Scholar
  21. *Dia, D. A., & Bradshaw, W. (2008). Cognitive risk factors to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 25, 469–481.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-008-0156-7.Google Scholar
  22. *Drake, K. L., & Kearney, C. A. (2008). Child anxiety sensitivity and family environment as mediators of the relationship between parent psychopathology, parent anxiety sensitivity, and child anxiety. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 30, 79–86.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-007-9055-z.Google Scholar
  23. *Essau, C. A., Sasagawa, S., & Ollendick, T. H. (2010). The facets of anxiety sensitivity in adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 23–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.08.001.Google Scholar
  24. *Feldner, M. T., Leen-Feldner, E. W., Trainor, C., Blanchard, L., & Monson, C. M. (2008). Smoking and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents: Does anxiety sensitivity matter? Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1470–1476.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.02.015.Google Scholar
  25. *Fullana, M. A., Servera, M., Weems, C. F., Tortella-Feliu, M., & Caseras, X. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index in a sample of Catalan school children. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 16, 99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1061580021000009647.Google Scholar
  26. Ginsburg, G. S., & Drake, K. L. (2002). Anxiety sensitivity and panic attach symptomatology among low-income African-American adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 16, 83–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(01)00092-5.Google Scholar
  27. Goldstein, A. J., & Chambless, D. L. (1978). A reanalysis of agoraphobia. Behavior Therapy, 9(1), 47–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(78)80053-7.Google Scholar
  28. *Gray, C. M. K., Carter, R., & Silverman, W. K. (2011). Anxiety symptoms in African American children: Relations with ethnic pride, anxiety sensitivity, and parenting. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 205–213.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-010-9422-3.Google Scholar
  29. *Gregory, A. M., & Eley, T. C. (2005). Sleep problems, anxiety and cognitive style in school-aged children. Infant and Child Development, 14, 435–444.  https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.409.Google Scholar
  30. *Hensley, L., & Varela, R. E. (2008). PTSD symptoms and somatic complaints following hurricane Katrina: The roles of trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), 542–552.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802148186.Google Scholar
  31. *Hunt, C., Keogh, E., & French, C. C. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity, conscious awareness and selective attentional biases in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 497–509.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.04.001.Google Scholar
  32. *Jokić-Begić, N., Jurin, T., & Korajlija, A. L. (2012). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Modified Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index in a sample of Croatian children and adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34, 126–135.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-011-9244-7.Google Scholar
  33. *Knapp, A. A., Blumenthal, H., Mischel, E. R., Badour, C. L., & Leen-Feldner, E. W. (2016). Anxiety sensitivity and its factors in relation to generalized anxiety disorder among adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 233–244.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-9991-0.Google Scholar
  34. *Lambert, S. F., Cooley, M. R., Campbell, K. D. M., Benoit, M. Z., & Stansbury, R. (2004). Assessing anxiety sensitivity in inner-city African American children: Psychometric properties of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 248–259.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_5.Google Scholar
  35. Laurent, J., Schmidt, N. B., Catanzaro, S. J., Joiner, T. E., & Kelley, A. M. (1998). Factor structure of a measure of anxiety sensitivity in children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12, 307–331.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(98)00017-6.Google Scholar
  36. *Leen-Feldner, E. W., Feldner, M. T., Bernstein, A., McCormick, J. T., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2005). Anxiety sensitivity and anxious responding to bodily sensations: A test among adolescents using a voluntary hyperventilation challenge. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 593–609.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-3510-5.Google Scholar
  37. *Leen-Feldner, E. W., Feldner, M. T., Reardon, L. E., Babson, K. A., & Dixon, L. (2008). Anxiety sensitivity and posttraumatic stress among traumatic event-exposed youth. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 548–556.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.01.014.Google Scholar
  38. Lilienfeld, S. O., Turner, S. M., & Jacob, R. G. (1993). Anxiety sensitivity: An examination of the theoretical and methodological issues. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 147–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6402(93)90019-X.Google Scholar
  39. *Lipsitz, J. D., Masia-Warner, C., Apfel, H., Marans, Z., Hellstern, B., Forand, N., et al. (2004). Anxiety and depressive symptoms and anxiety sensitivity in youngsters with noncardiac chest pain and benign heart murmurs. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 607–612.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsh062.Google Scholar
  40. *Martin, L., Viljoen, M., Kidd, M., & Seedat, S. (2014). Are childhood trauma exposures predictive of anxiety sensitivity in school attending youth? Journal of Affective Disorders, 168, 5–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.035.Google Scholar
  41. *Martin, L., Viljoen, M., Kidd, M., & Seedat, S. (2016). Anxiety sensitivity in school attending youth: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 18-item CASI in a multicultural South African sample. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1996.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01996.Google Scholar
  42. *McLaughlin, K. A., & Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). Stressful life events, anxiety sensitivity, and internalizing symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 659–669.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016499.Google Scholar
  43. *McLaughlin, E. N., Stewart, S. H., & Taylor, S. (2007). Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index factors predict unique variance in DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36, 210–219.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506070701499988.Google Scholar
  44. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISM statement. British Medical Journal, 339, b2535.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535.Google Scholar
  45. Muris, P. (2002). An expanded childhood anxiety sensitivity index: Its factor structure, reliability, and validity in a non-clinical adolescent sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 299–311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00112-1.Google Scholar
  46. *Muris, P., Schmidt, H., Merckelbach, H., & Schouten, E. (2001). Anxiety sensitivity in adolescents: Factor structure and relationships to train anxiety and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 89–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00179-5.Google Scholar
  47. Naragon-Gainey, K. (2010). Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 128–150.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018055.Google Scholar
  48. Noël, V. A., & Francis, S. E. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the role of child anxiety sensitivity in child anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(5), 721–733.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9489-3.Google Scholar
  49. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  50. Olatunji, B. O., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. (2009). Anxiety sensitivity and the anxiety disorders: A meta-analytic review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 974–999.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017428.Google Scholar
  51. Olthuis, J. V., Watt, M. C., & Steward, S. H. (2014). Anxiety sensitivity index (ASI-3) subscales predict unique variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 115–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.04.009.Google Scholar
  52. *Orenes, A., Méndez, X., & García-Fernández, J. M. (2017). Spanish validation of the Separation Anxiety Assessment Scale. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48, 468–477.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.04.009.Google Scholar
  53. *Pina, A. A., & Silverman, W. K. (2004). Clinical phenomenology, somatic symptoms, and distress in Hispanic/Latino and European American youths with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 227–236.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_3.Google Scholar
  54. Rabian, B., Peterson, R. A., Richters, J., & Jensen, P. S. (1993). Anxiety sensitivity among anxious children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 441–446.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2204_4.Google Scholar
  55. Rector, N. A., Szacun-Shimizu, K., & Leybman, M. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: Disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1967–1975.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.09.017.Google Scholar
  56. Reiss, S. (1987). Theoretical perspectives on the fear of anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 7(6), 585–596.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358(87)90007-9.Google Scholar
  57. Reiss, S., & McNally, R. J. (1985). Expectancy model of fear. In S. Reiss & R. R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy (pp. 107–121). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Reiss, S., Peterson, R. A., Gursky, D. M., & McNally, R. J. (1986). Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the predictions of fearfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24(1), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(86)90143-9.Google Scholar
  59. Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, O. B. (1978). What I think and feel: A revised measure of children’s manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 271–280.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00919131.Google Scholar
  60. Rodriguez, B. F., Bruce, S. E., Pagano, M. E., Spencer, M. A., & Keller, M. B. (2004). Factor structure and stability of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index in a longitudinal study of anxiety disorder patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 79–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00074-3.Google Scholar
  61. Schneider, S., & Hensdiek, M. (2003). Panikanfälle und Angstsensitivität im Jugendalter. [Panic and anxiety sensitivity in youth]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 32, 219–227.Google Scholar
  62. Silverman, W. K., Fleisig, W., Rabian, B., & Peterson, R. A. (1991). Child anxiety sensitivity index. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20(2), 162–168.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2002_7.Google Scholar
  63. *Silverman, W. K., Ginsburg, G. S., & Goedhart, A. W. (1999). Factor structure of the childhood anxiety sensitivity index. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 903–917.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00189-2.Google Scholar
  64. *Silverman, W. K., Goedhart, A. W., Barrett, P., & Turner, C. (2003). The facets of anxiety sensitivity represented in the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory analyses of factor models from past studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 364–374.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.112.3.364.Google Scholar
  65. Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36(5), 545–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00034-5.Google Scholar
  66. *Stassart, C., & Etienne, A. M. (2014). A French translation of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI): Factor structure, reliability and validity of this scale in a nonclinical sample of children. Psychologica Belgica, 54, 222–241.  https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.an.Google Scholar
  67. Stassart, C., Hansez, I., Delvaux, M., Depauw, B., & Etienne, A. M. (2013). A French translation of the Revised Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI-R): Its factor structure, reliability, and validity in a nonclinical sample of children aged 12 and 13 years old. Psychologica Belgica, 53, 57–74.  https://doi.org/10.5334/pb-53-1-57.Google Scholar
  68. *Stevanovic, D. S., Silverman, W. K., Nichols-Lopez, K. A., Popovic-Deusic, S. D., & Pejovic-Milovancevic, M. M. (2013). Facets of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index among Serbian youth. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 42, 342–346.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2013.773060.Google Scholar
  69. *Stewart, S. H., Taylor, S., & Baker, J. M. (1997). Gender differences in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(2), 179–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(97)00005-4.Google Scholar
  70. Sullivan, G. M. (2011). A primer on the validity of assessment instruments. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 3, 119–120.  https://doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-11-00075.1.Google Scholar
  71. Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53–55.  https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd.Google Scholar
  72. Taylor, S., & Cox, B. J. (1998a). An expanded Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Evidence for a hierarchic structure in a clinical sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12, 463–483.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(98)00028-0.Google Scholar
  73. Taylor, S., & Cox, B. J. (1998b). Anxiety sensitivity: Multiple dimensions and hierarchic structure. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 37–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(97)00071-5.Google Scholar
  74. Taylor, S., Koch, W. J., Woody, S., & McLean, P. (1996). Anxiety sensitivity and depression: How are they related? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 474–479.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.474.Google Scholar
  75. Taylor, S., Zvolensky, M. J., Cox, B. J., Deacon, B., Heimberg, R. G., Ledley, D. R., et al. (2007). Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: Development and initial validation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3. Psychological Assessment, 19, 176–188.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.19.2.176.Google Scholar
  76. *Tsao, J. C. I., Allen, L. B., Evans, S., Lu, Q., Myers, C. D., & Zeltzer, L. K. (2009a). Anxiety sensitivity and catastrophizing: Associations with pain and somatization in non-clinical children. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 1085–1094.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105309342306.Google Scholar
  77. *Tsao, J. C. I., Evans, S., Meldrum, M., & Zeltzer, L. K. (2009b). Sex differences in anxiety sensitivity among children with chronic pain and non-clinical children. Journal of Pain Management, 2, 151–162.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105309342306.Google Scholar
  78. *Tsao, J. C. I., Myers, C. D., Craske, M. G., Bursch, B., Kim, S. C., & Zelter, L. K. (2005). Parent and child anxiety sensitivity: Relationship in a nonclinical sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 27, 259–268.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-005-2406-8.Google Scholar
  79. *van Widenfelt, B. M., Siebelink, B. M., Goedhart, A. W., & Treffers, P. D. A. (2002). The Dutch Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Psychometric properties and factor structure. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 90–100.  https://doi.org/10.1207/153744202753441701.Google Scholar
  80. *Varela, R. E., Weems, C. F., Berman, S. L., Hensley, L., & de Bernal, M. C. R. (2007). Internalizing symptoms in Latinos: The role of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 429–440.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9168-4.Google Scholar
  81. *Walsh, T. M., Stewart, S. H., McLaughlin, E., & Comeau, N. (2004). Gender differences in Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) dimensions. Anxiety Disorders, 18, 695–706.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(03)00043-4.Google Scholar
  82. Weems, C. F., Hayward, C., Killen, J., & Taylor, C. B. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of anxiety sensitivity in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 471–477.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.111.3.471.Google Scholar
  83. Weems, C. F., Taylor, L. K., Marks, A. B., & Varela, R. E. (2010). Anxiety sensitivity in childhood and adolescence: Parent reports and factors that influence association with child reports. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 303–315.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-008-9222-x.Google Scholar
  84. *Woodward, E. C., Viana, A. G., Raines, E. M., Hanna, A. E., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2018). The role of anxiety sensitivity in the relationship between emotion dysregulation and internalizing psychopathology among trauma-exposed inpatient adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 42, 823–831.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-018-9943-4.Google Scholar
  85. *Wright, K. D., Asmundson, G. J. G., McCreary, D. R., Stewart, S. H., McLaughlin, E., Comeau, M. N., et al. (2010). Confirmatory factor analysis of the childhood anxiety sensitivity index: A gender comparison. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 39(3), 225–235.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2010.486840.Google Scholar
  86. *Wright, K. D., Lebell, M. A. N. A., & Carleton, R. N. (2016). Intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity, health anxiety, and anxiety disorder symptoms in youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 41, 35–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.04.011.Google Scholar
  87. *Yilmaz, S., Bilgiç, A., Akça, O. F., Türkoglu, S., & Hergüner, S. (2016). Relationships among depression, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 20, 10–18.  https://doi.org/10.3109/13651501.2015.1117110.Google Scholar
  88. Zinbarg, R. E., Barlow, D. H., & Brown, T. A. (1997). Hierarchical structure and general factor saturation of the anxiety sensitivity index: Evidence and implications. Psychological Assessment, 9(3), 277–284.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.9.3.277.Google Scholar
  89. Zvolensky, M. J., McNeil, D. W., Porter, C. A., & Stewart, S. H. (2001). Assessment of anxiety sensitivity in young american indians and alaska natives. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39(4), 477–493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA
  2. 2.WestatLebanonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyYork UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations