Work Engagement Among Child-Care Providers: An Application of the Job Demands–Resources Model
- 72 Downloads
As the demand for child care continues in the United States, the well-being of the child care workforce is an important consideration as well. Child care providers have job-related stresses, which affect their physical and mental health, ultimately can lead to a variety of concerns including, high turnover and overall quality of services.
The purpose of the study is to examine the level of work engagement among child care workers. Specific attentions were paid to examine factors associated with work engagement using job demands–resources model.
A cross-sectional design was used to analyze a total of 393 child care workers to examine the factors associated with their work engagement.
Results of hierarchical linear regression analysis suggested that job resources, psychological rewards, and job control are significantly associated with child care workers’ work engagement. The study findings also confirm the buffering effect of job resources (perceived positive feelings about their job) on the relationship between job demands and work engagement. When there was low level of psychological rewards, there was a high negative relationship between job demands and work engagement; while when there was high level of psychological rewards, the job demands had no relationship with work engagement.
Overall, the findings show a link between having a high level of positive feelings and child care providers’ engagement at work. Developing strategies to reinforce employees’ positive feelings toward work may help to develop and maintain an engaged workforce. Studies testing such strategies are needed.
KeywordsWork engagement Job demands–resources model Child care providers Psychological rewards
This research was supported by a grant from the Hogg Foundation for Mental Health (JRG-085, PI: Dnika Travis, Ph.D). Points of view in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the Hogg Foundation.
- Blacksmith, N., & Harter, J. (2011). Majority of American workers not engaged in their jobs. Gallup Wellbeing. Retrieved July 30, 2017 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/150383/Majority-American-Workers-Not-Engaged-Jobs.aspx.
- Child Care Aware of America. (2017). Checking in: A snapshot of the child care landscape CCAoA’s annual state fact sheets. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from http://usa.childcareaware.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/FINAL_SFS_REPORT.pdf.
- Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Crabtree, S. (2003). Bringing work problems home. Gallup Business Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2017 from http://businessjournal.gallup.com/content/1078/Bringing-Work-Problems-Home.aspx.
- Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2010). A meta-analysis of work engagement: Relationships with burnout, demands, resources, and consequences. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 102–117). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Harter, J. K., & Agrawal, S. (2012). Engagement at work: Working hours, flextime, vacation time, and wellbeing. Gallup. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from http://www.gallup.com/strategicconsulting/157238/engagement-work-working-hours-flextime-vacation-time-wellbeing.aspx.
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Methodology in the social sciences. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Laughlin, L. (2013). Who’s minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Spring 2011. Current Population Reports, P70-135. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
- Mor Barak, M. E., Nissly, J. A., & Levin, A. (2001). Antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare, social work, and other human service employees: What can we learn from past research? A review and metanalysis. Social Service Review, 75(4), 625–661. https://doi.org/10.1086/323166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ram, P., & Prabhakar, G. V. (2011). The role of employee engagement in work-related outcomes. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(3), 47–61.Google Scholar
- Texas Workforce Commission. (2011). 2011 Texas child care market rate survey. Retrieved March 23, 2013 from http://twc.texas.gov/programs/texas-child-care-market-rate-survey.
- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2016). Labor force participation rates. Retrieved October 5, 2017 from https://www.dol.gov/wb/stats/NEWSTATS/latest/laborforce.htm#six.
- Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Witte, H. D., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations, 22(3), 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: Problems and remedies. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 56–75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
- Whitebook, M., Phillips, D., & Howes, C. (2014). Worthy work, STILL unlivable wages: The early childhood workforce 25 years after the National Child Care Staffing Study. Berkeley, CA: Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar