Child & Youth Care Forum

, Volume 43, Issue 5, pp 607–619 | Cite as

Screening for Sleep Reduction in Adolescents Through Self-report: Development and Validation of the Sleep Reduction Screening Questionnaire (SRSQ)

  • Annette van Maanen
  • Julia F. Dewald-Kaufmann
  • Frans J. Oort
  • Eduard J. de Bruin
  • Marcel G. Smits
  • Michelle A. Short
  • Michael Gradisar
  • Gerard A. Kerkhof
  • Anne Marie Meijer
Original Paper



Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction.


This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction Screening Questionnaire (SRSQ) that can be used to screen for symptoms of sleep reduction in adolescents.


Various samples from the general and clinical populations were included in the study. The SRSQ is a nine-item questionnaire that is based on the longer, four dimensional Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (Meijer in J Sleep Res 17:395–405, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00677.x, 2008). Items were selected on the basis of principal components analysis, item-total correlations, and substantive consideration. The SRSQ was validated by calculating correlations with self-reported and objective sleep and self-reported daytime functioning. Cut-off scores were determined so that the SRSQ can be used as a screening instrument.


Internal consistencies of the SRSQ were good (Cronbach’s alpha = .79 in the general population). Correlations with self-reported sleep, daytime functioning and objective sleep variables were satisfactory and in the expected directions. The SRSQ discriminates well between clinical and non-clinical cases. When accounting for prevalence of sleep reduction symptoms in the general population, the area under the curve was .91, sensitivity was .80 and specificity was .87.


The SRSQ appears to be a short reliable and valid questionnaire. Due to the limited number of items and the availability of cut-off scores, it is a practical tool for clinical and research purposes.


Sleep Adolescent Sleep reduction Screening instrument 



The authors would like to thank Manon Nieberg, Catharina den Ouden, Karlijn van Vliet, Anita Ranzijn, Nicole de Ruyter and Yfke Mollema for their help during the data collection and Arjan Miedema for permission to use his data. Furthermore, we are thankful to all participating schools and adolescents.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette van Maanen
    • 1
  • Julia F. Dewald-Kaufmann
    • 1
    • 5
  • Frans J. Oort
    • 1
  • Eduard J. de Bruin
    • 1
  • Marcel G. Smits
    • 2
  • Michelle A. Short
    • 3
    • 6
  • Michael Gradisar
    • 3
  • Gerard A. Kerkhof
    • 4
  • Anne Marie Meijer
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Child Development and EducationUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Centre for Sleep-Wake Disorders and ChronobiologyHospital Gelderse ValleiEdeThe Netherlands
  3. 3.School of PsychologyFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Research Institute PsychologyUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Department of Paediatric EndocrinologyDr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian UniversityMunichGermany
  6. 6.Division of Education, Arts and Social SciencesUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

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