The Pullout Program Day a Week School for Gifted Children: Effects on Social–Emotional and Academic Functioning
- 2.3k Downloads
Gifted children learn differently compared to their peers in several ways. However, their educational needs are often not met in regular schools, which may result in underachievement and social–emotional and behavioral problems. A pullout program, the “Day a Week School” (DWS), was offered to gifted children in 25 elementary schools from neighborhoods of higher and lower SES in Amsterdam.
To investigate whether DWS decreases children’s social–emotional and behavior problems and parents’ stress, and improves children’s self-concept, enjoyment at school, and academic achievement.
Gifted children (grades 3–5) were selected through a standardized identification procedure assessing “out-of-the box”, logical, and creative thinking and motivation (n = 89). Children, as well as both their parents and teachers, completed questionnaires before the start of DWS and after 2,5 months. Results were analyzed for all children and for at-risk children with higher levels of psychopathology before starting DWS.
Analyses on the total group showed small positive effects on children’s self-reported self-concept dimensions, scholastic competence and behavioral conduct, as well as on fathers’ reported child prosocial behavior. In the at-risk group, children reported medium positive effects on scholastic competence and behavioral conduct, and on sleep problems and worry, and small improvements on enjoyment at school. Parents of at-risk children reported decreased child’s somatic complaints and decreased social–emotional and behavioral problems. Finally, teachers reported higher academic achievement and medium positive effects on inattention-hyperactivity in the at-risk group.
Day a Week School appears to be a promising pullout program for gifted children, particularly for children at-risk for psychopathology.
KeywordsGifted children Special education Pullout program Social–emotional functioning Academic functioning
Conflict of interest
- Abidin, R. R. (1983). Parenting stress index manual. Charlottesville: Pediatric Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Archambault, F. X, Jr, Westberg, K. L., Brown, S., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers. Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
- Colangelo, N., Assouline, S., & Gross, M. (Eds.). (2004). A nation deceived: How schools hold back America’s brightest students. Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa.Google Scholar
- Coleman, L. J., & Cross, T. (1988). Is being gifted a social handicap? Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 11, 41–56.Google Scholar
- Csikszentmihalyi, M., Rathunde, K., & Whalen, S. (1993). Talented teenagers. The roots of success and failure. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Cummings, C., & Hoare, A. (2008). Day-a-week-school. Echa News, 22, 24–26.Google Scholar
- De Brock, A., Vermulst, A. A., Gerris, J. R. M., & Abidin, R. R. (1992). Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index. Handleiding experimentele versie. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
- Dekovic, M., Groenendaal, J. H. A., & Gerrits, L. A. W. (1996). Opvoederkenmerken. In J. Rispens, J. M. A. Hermanns, & W. H. J. Meeus (Eds.), Opvoeden in Nederland (pp. 70–94). Assen: Van Gorcum.Google Scholar
- Eccles, A. L., Bauman, E., & Rotenberg, K. J. (1989). Peer acceptance and self-esteem in gifted children. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 401–409.Google Scholar
- Feldman, D. H., & Piirto, J. (1995). Parenting talented children. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (pp. 285–304). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Gallagher, J., Weiss, P., Oglesby, K., & Thomas, T. (1983). The status of gifted and talented education: United States survey of needs, practices, and policies. Los Angeles: Leadership Training Institute.Google Scholar
- Garner, D. (1991). Eating disorders in the gifted adolescent. In M. Bierely & J. L. Genschaft (Eds.), Understanding the gifted adolescent (pp. 50–64). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Gross, M. U. M. (2006). Exceptionally gifted children: Long-term outcomes of academic acceleration and nonacceleration. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 29, 404–429.Google Scholar
- Harter, S. (1985). The self-perception profile for children: Revision of the perceived competence scale for children. Denver, CO: University of Denver.Google Scholar
- Jellesma, F. C., Meerum Terwogt, M., Reijntjes, A., Rieffe, C., & Stegge, H. (2005). De vragenlijst Non-Productieve Denkprocessen voor Kinderen (NPDK): Piekeren en Rumineren. Kind en Adolescent, 26, 368–378.Google Scholar
- Kearney, K. (1996). Highly gifted children in full inclusion classrooms. The Hollingworth Center for Highly Gifted Children, 12(4). Retrieved 10/07/2013 from http://www.hollingworth.org/fullincl.html.
- Krause, K., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2003). Educational psychology for learning and teaching. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson.Google Scholar
- Moon, T. R., Tomlinson, C. A., & Callahan, C. M. (1995). Academic diversity in the middle school: Results of a national survey of middle school administrators and teachers (Research Monograph 95124). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
- Morelock, M. J. (1992). Giftedness: The view from within. Understanding our gifted, 4, 11–15.Google Scholar
- Neihart, M. (2002). Delinquency and gifted children. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, S. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.), The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? (pp. 103–112). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.Google Scholar
- Olenchak, F. R. (1990). School change through gifted education: Effects on elementary students’ attitudes toward learning. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 14, 66–78.Google Scholar
- Porter, L. (2005). Gifted young children: A guide for parents and teachers (2nd ed.). Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
- Reis, S. M., & Purcell, J. H. (1993). An analysis of content elimination and strategies used by elementary classroom teachers in the curriculum compacting process. Journal for the education of the gifted, 16, 147–170.Google Scholar
- Renzulli, J. S. (1981). Identifying key features in programs for the gifted. In W. B. Barbe & J. S. Renzulli (Eds.), Psychology and education of the gifted (pp. 214–219). New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, C. R., & Bradley, M. (1983). Emotional stability of intellectually superior children versus nongifted peers as estimated by chronic anxiety levels. School Psychology Review, 12, 190–194.Google Scholar
- Rimm, S. (1990). How to parent so children will learn. Watertown, WI: Apple Publishing.Google Scholar
- Roedell, W. C. (1986). Socioemotional vulnerabilities of young children. In J. R. Whitmore (Ed.), Intellectual giftedness in young children: Recognition and development (pp. 17–29). New York: The Haworth Press Inc.Google Scholar
- Rogers, K. B. (1991). The relationship of grouping practices to the education of the gifted and talented learner (RBDM 9102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
- Rogers, K. B. (2002). Re-forming gifted education: Matching the program to the child. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.Google Scholar
- Rogers, K. B., & Kimpston, R. D. (1992). Acceleration: What we do vs. what we know. Educational Leadership, 50, 58–61.Google Scholar
- Schmitz, C., & Galbraith, J. (1985). Managing the social and emotional needs of the gifted. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.Google Scholar
- Seeley, K. R. (1984). Perspective on adolescent giftedness and delinquency. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 8, 59–72.Google Scholar
- Silverman, L. K. (1997). The construct of asynchronous development. Journal of Education, 72, 36–58.Google Scholar
- Silverman, L. K., & Kearney, K. (1989). Parents of the extraordinarily gifted. Advanced Development Journal, 1, 41–56.Google Scholar
- Smits, J. A. E., & Vorst, H. C. M. (1990). Schoolvragenlijst voor basisonderwijs en voortgezet onderwijs. Nijmegen, Nederland: Berkhout.Google Scholar
- Smits, J. A. E., Vorst, H. C. M., & Universiteit van Amsterdam. (2008). SchoolVragenLijst. Amsterdam: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Tolan, S. S. (1985). Stuck in another dimension: The exceptionally gifted child in school. G/C/T, 41, 22–26.Google Scholar
- Van Kessels, A. (2009). Topdown leren onmogelijk uit te leggen; als je niet weet wat bottom- up leren is. Retrieved on 22/12/1012 from: http://home.planet.nl/~heuve533/topdown.pdf.
- Van Tassel-Baska, J. (2000). Theory and research on curriculum development for the gifted. In K. A. Heller, F. J. Mönks, R. J. Sternberg, & R. F. Subotnik (Eds.), International handbook of giftedness and talent (2nd ed., pp. 345–365). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Veerman, J. W., Straathof, M. A. E., & Treffers, P. D. A. (1994). Handleiding Competentiebelevingsschaal voor Kinderen, CBSK. Duivendrecht: Paedologisch Instituut.Google Scholar
- Webb, J. T. (1993). Nurturing social–emotional development of gifted children. In K. A. Heller, F. J. Mönks, & A. H. Passow (Eds.), International handbook of research and development of giftedness and talent (pp. 525–538). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- Webb, J. T., Amend, E. R., Webb, N. E., Goerss, J., Beljan, P., & Olenchak, F. R. (2005). Misdiagnosis and dual diagnoses of gifted children and adults: ADHD, Bipolar, OCD, Asperger’s, Depression, and other disorders. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.Google Scholar
- Webb, J. T., Gore, J. L., Amend, E. R., & DeVries, A. R. (2007). A parent’s guide to gifted children. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.Google Scholar
- Whitmore, J. R. (1980). Giftedness, conflict and underachievement. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Winebrenner, S. (2000). Gifted students need an education, too. Educational leadership, 58, 52–56.Google Scholar
- Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar