Child & Youth Care Forum

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 599–616 | Cite as

Social Bonds and School Bullying: A Study of Macanese Male Adolescents on Bullying Perpetration and Peer Victimization

Original Paper



School bullying research on Macanese adolescents is limited. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of China with over 95 % of the population is of Chinese descent. Yet, Macanese people are under substantial Western influences.


Using a two male-only school sample of 365 participants aged between 10 and 17 years, this study explores the role of different social bonds, as theorized in Hirschi’s (Causes of delinquency. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1969) social control theory, in bullying perpetration and peer victimization at school.


The participants’ bullying behaviors (i.e., bullying perpetration and peer victimization) and social bonds are measured using the University of Illinois Bully Scale and Victimization Scale, and Chapple et al.’s Social Bonding Scale.


Overall, school bullying behaviors are positively related to theft and violent delinquency. Particularly, bullying perpetration is negatively correlated with different social bonds. Multivariate analyses indicate that an increase in age and organizational involvement, but a decrease in educational commitment and belief in the legal system are likely to increase the tendency to engage in bullying perpetration. Conversely, a decrease in age and the presence of paternal criminality are significantly related to being victimized at school.


Several implications for social service, from a social bonding perspective, are suggested by way to reduce the propensity to engage in bullying behaviors, particularly bullying perpetration at school.


School bullying Social bond Perpetration Victimization Macau Chinese 


  1. Alarid, L. F., Burton, V. S., Jr, & Cullen, F. T. (2000). Gender and crime among felony offenders: Assessing the generality of social control and differential association theories. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37(2), 171–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. J., Holmes, M. D., & Ostresh, E. (1999). Male and female delinquents’ attachments and effects of attachments on severity of self-reported delinquency. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 26(4), 435–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ando, M., Asakura, T., & Simons-Morton, B. (2005). Psychosocial influences on psychical, verbal, and indirect bullying among Japanese early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25(3), 268–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begg, D. J., Langley, J. D., Moffitt, T. E., & Marshall, S. W. (1996). Sports and delinquency: An examination of the deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 30, 335–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berrero, M. (2001). The widening mistrust between youth and police. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82(4), 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Booth, J. A., Farrell, A., & Varano, S. P. (2008). Social control, serious delinquency, and risky behavior: A gendered analysis. Crime and Delinquency, 54(3), 423–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borntrager, C., Davis, J. L., Bernstein, A., & Gorman, H. (2009). A cross-national perspective on bullying. Child & Youth Care Forum, 38, 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K. P., Oesterle, S., Fleming, C. B., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: Findings from the Social Development Research Group. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 252–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan, H. C., & Chui, W. H. (2012). Psychological correlates of violent and nonviolent Hong Kong juvenile probationers. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 30(2), 103–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan, H. C., & Frei, A. (2013). Female sexual homicide offenders: An examination of an underresearched offender population. Homicide Studies, 17(1), 96–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan, H. C., & Heide, K. M. (2008). Weapons used by juveniles and adult offenders in sexual homicides: An empirical analysis of 29 years of US data. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 5(3), 189–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan, H. C., & Heide, K. M. (2009). Sexual homicide: A synthesis of the literature. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 10(1), 31–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan, H. C., Heide, K. M., & Myers, W. C. (2013). Juvenile and adult offenders arrested for sexual homicide: An analysis of victim–offender relationship and weapon used by race. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58(1), 85–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan, H. C., Myers, W. C., & Heide, K. M. (2010). An empirical analysis of 30 years of U.S. juvenile and adult sexual homicide offender data: Race and age differences in the victim–offender relationship. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(5), 1282–1290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapple, C. L., McQuillan, J. A., & Berdahl, T. A. (2005). Gender, social bonds, and delinquency: A comparison of boys’ and girls’ models. Social Science Research, 34, 357–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, X. (2009). The link between juvenile offending and victimization: The influence of risky lifestyles, social bonding, and individual characteristics. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 7, 119–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, J.-K., & Astor, R. A. (2009). The perpetration of school violence in Taiwan: An analysis of gender, grade level, and school type. School Psychology International, 30(6), 568–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, J.-K., & Astor, R. A. (2010). School violence in Taiwan: Examining how Western risk factors predict school violence in an Asian culture. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(8), 1388–1410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., & Li, Z. (1995). Social functioning and adjustment in Chinese children: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 31, 531–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, S. P., & Yue, G. A. (2002). Survey on bullying behavior of primary school and middle school students [in Chinese]. Science and Mental Health, 25(3), 355–356.Google Scholar
  21. Cheng, Y.-Y., Chen, L.-M., Ho, H.-C., & Cheng, C.-L. (2011). Definitions of school bullying in Taiwan: A comparison of multiple perspectives. School Psychology International, 32(3), 227–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheng, Y., Newman, I. M., Qu, M., Mbulo, L., Chai, Y., Chen, Y., et al. (2010). Being bullied and psychosocial adjustment among middle schools students in China. Journal of School Health, 80(4), 193–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chi, G. B., Chen, H. Z., & Wang, S. Y. (2007). Epidemiological investigation and analysis of influencing factors of campus violence in secondary schools. Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention, 11, 250–252.Google Scholar
  24. Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. (2011). Social bonds and male juvenile delinquency while on probation: An exploratory test in Hong Kong. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(11), 2329–2334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. (2012a). An empirical investigation of social bonds and juvenile delinquency in Hong Kong. Child & Youth Care Forum, 41(4), 371–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. (2012b). Criminal recidivism among Hong Kong male juvenile probationers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(5), 857–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. (2013a). Association between self-control and school bullying behaviors among Macanese adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37(4), 237–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. (2013b). Psychological characteristics of male 14- to 20-year-olds on probation and in a residential home in Hong Kong. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 23(1), 41–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. (2013c). Juvenile offenders’ perceptions of probation officers as social workers in Hong Kong. Journal of Social Work,. doi:10.1177/1468017313478291.Google Scholar
  30. Chui, W. H., & Ip, L. R. (2005). Policing in a multicultural society: A Queensland case study. Police Practice and Research, 6(3), 279–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Craig, W. M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 123–130.Google Scholar
  32. Cuevas, C. A., Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. A., & Ormrod, R. K. (2007). Juvenile delinquency and victimization: A theoretical typology. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22, 1581–1602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cunningham, N. J. (2007). Level of bonding to school and perception of the school environment by bullies, victims, and bully victims. Journal of Early Adolescence, 27(4), 457–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Li, S. (1999). Social control, delinquency, and youth status development: A development approach. Sociological Perspectives, 42, 305–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eslea, M., Menesini, E., Morita, Y., O’Moore, M., Mora-Merchán, J. A., Pereira, B., et al. (2004). Friendship and loneliness among bullies and victims: Data from seven countries. Aggressive Behavior, 30(1), 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2001). Bullying and victimization during early adolescence: Peer influences and psychosocial correlates. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2, 123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Espelage, D. L., Holt, M. K., & Henkel, R. R. (2003). Examination of peer-group contextual effects on aggression during early adolescence. Child Development, 74(1), 205–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review, 32(3), 365–383.Google Scholar
  39. Fonagy, P., Twemlow, S. W., Vernberg, E., Sacco, F. C., & Little, T. D. (2005). Creating a peaceful school learning environment: The impact of an antibullying program on educational attainment in elementary schools. Medical Science Monitor, 11, 317–325.Google Scholar
  40. Furlong, M. J., & Morrison, G. M. (1994). Introduction to miniseries: School violence and safety in perspective. School Psychology Review, 23, 139–150.Google Scholar
  41. Garbarino, J. (2006). See Jane hit: Why girls are growing more violent and what can be done about it. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  42. Gendron, B. P., Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2011). An analysis of bullying among students within schools: Estimating the effects of individual normative beliefs, self-esteem, and school climate. Journal of School Violence, 10(2), 150–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Guo, Q.-Z., Ma, W.-J., Nie, S.-P., Xu, Y.-J., Xu, H.-F., & Zhang, Y.-R. (2010). Relationships between weight status and bullying victimization among school-aged adolescents in Guangdong Province of China. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 23, 108–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hawker, D. S. J., & Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: A meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 441–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hawkins, J. D., Guo, J., Hill, K. G., Battin-Pearson, S., & Abbott, R. D. (2001). Long-term effects of the social development intervention on school bonding trajectories. Applied Developmental Science, 5(4), 225–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haynie, D. L., Nansel, T., Eitel, P., Crump, A. D., Saylor, K., Yu, K., et al. (2001). Bullies, victims, and bully/victims: Distinct groups of at-risk youth. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21(1), 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hazemba, A., Siziya, S., Muula, A. S., & Rudatsikira, E. (2008). Prevalence and correlated of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: Results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-based Health Survey. Annals of General Psychiatry, 7, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  50. Hokoda, A., Lu, H.-A., & Angeles, M. (2006). School bullying in Taiwanese adolescents. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 6(4), 69–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holt, M. K., Kantor, G. K., & Finkelhor, D. (2009). Parent/child concordance about bullying involvement and family characteristics related to bullying and peer victimization. Journal of School Violence, 8(1), 42–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jang, S. J. (2002). The effects of family, school, peers, and attitudes on adolescents’ drug use: Do they vary with age? Justice Quarterly, 19(1), 97–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jenkins, P. H. (1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34, 337–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jennings, W. G., Higgins, G. E., Tewksbury, R., Gover, A. R., & Piquero, A. R. (2010). A longitudinal assessment of the victim–offender overlap. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25, 2147–2174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaltiala-Heino, R., Rimpela, M., Rantanen, P., & Rimpela, A. (2000). Bullying at school—an indicator of adolescents at risk for mental disorders. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 661–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Khatri, P., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Patterson, C. (2000). Aggression and peer victimization as predictors of self-reported behavioral and emotional adjustment. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 345–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kumpulainen, K., & Rasanen, E. (2000). Children involved in bullying at elementary school age: Their psychiatric symptoms and deviance in adolescence: An epidemiological sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 1567–1577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Laundra, K. H., Kiger, G., & Bahr, S. J. (2002). A social development model of serious delinquency: Examining gender differences. Journal of Primary Prevention, 22, 389–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. LeBlanc, M., Vallieres, E., & McDuff, P. (1993). The prediction of males’ adolescent and adult offending from school experience. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 35, 459–478.Google Scholar
  60. Lindsay, S., McPherson, M. C., Aslam, H., McKeever, P., & Wright, V. (2013). Exploring children’s perceptions of two school-based social inclusion programs: A pilot study. Child & Youth Care Forum, 42(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Miller, K. M. (2006). The impact of parental incarceration on children: An emerging need for effective interventions. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 23(4), 472–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Miller, M. H., Esbensen, F., & Freng, A. (1999). Parental attachment, parental supervision, and adolescent deviance in intact and non-intact families. Journal of Crime and Justice, 22, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Morita, Y., Soeda, H., Soeda, K., & Taki, M. (1999). Japan. In P. K. Smith, Y. Morita, J. Junger-Tas, D. Olweus, R. Catalano, & P. Slee (Eds.), The nature of school bullying: A cross-national perspective (pp. 310–323). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys’ antisocial behavior and delinquency through the life-course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(12), 1269–1278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Myers, W. C., & Chan, H. C. (2012). Juvenile homosexual homicide. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 30(2), 90–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violence and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70, 1181–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nansel, T., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R., Ruan, W., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ng, J. W. Y., & Tsang, S. K. M. (2008). School bullying and the mental health of junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. Journal of School Violence, 7(2), 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nishina, A., Juvonen, J., & Witkow, M. R. (2005). Sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will make me sick: The psychosocial, somatic, and scholastic consequences of peer harassment. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 37–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Olweus, D. (1978). Aggression in the schools: Bullies and whipping boys. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Press.Google Scholar
  72. Olweus, D., Limber, S., & Mihalic, S. F. (1999). Blueprints for violence prevention, book nine: Bullying prevention program. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.Google Scholar
  73. O’Moore, A. M., & Kirkham, C. (2001). Self-esteem and its relationship to bullying behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 269–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 61, 635–655.Google Scholar
  75. Özbay, Ö., & Özcan, Y. Z. (2006). A test of Hirschi’s social bonding theory: Juvenile delinquency in the high school of Ankara, Turkey. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6), 711–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Özbay, Ö., & Özcan, Y. Z. (2008). A test of Hirschi’s social bonding theory: A comparison of male and female delinquency. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52(2), 134–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pabon, E., Rodriguez, O., & Gurin, G. (1992). Clarifying peer relations and delinquency. Youth and Society, 24, 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pellegrini, A. D. (1999). Bullies and victims in school: A review and call for research. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19, 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pellegrini, A. D. (2001). A longitudinal study of heterosexual relationships, aggression, and sexual harassment during the transition from primary school through middle school. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 151–163.Google Scholar
  80. Pellegrini, A. D., & Bartini, M. (2000). A longitudinal study of bullying, victimization, and peer affiliation during the transition from primary school to middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 37(3), 699–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pope, A. W., & Bierman, K. L. (1999). Predicting adolescent peer problems and antisocial activities: The relative roles of aggression and dysregulation. Developmental Psychology, 35, 335–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Popp, A. M., & Peguero, A. A. (2012). Social bonds and the role of school-based victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(17), 3366–3388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rigby, K. (1994). Psychosocial functioning in families of Australian adolescent children involved in bully/victim problems. Journal of Family Therapy, 16, 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rigby, K., & Slee, P. (1993). Dimensions of interpersonal relation among Australian children and implications for psychological wellbeing. Journal of Social Psychology, 133, 33–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roland, E. (2000). Bullying in school: Three national innovations in Norwegian schools in 15 years. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 135–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rubin, K. H., Chen, X., & Hymel, S. (1993). Socio-emotional characteristics of aggressive and withdrawn children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 518–534.Google Scholar
  87. Sakamaki, S. (1996). Fates worse than death. Far Eastern Economic Review, 159, 38–40.Google Scholar
  88. Schwartz, D., Chang, L., & Farver, J. M. (2001). Correlates of victimization in Chinese children’s peer groups. Developmental Psychology, 37, 520–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sechrest, L., Fay, T. L., & Hafeez Zaidi, S. M. (1972). Problems of translation in cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 3(1), 41–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Simons-Morton, B. G., Crump, A. D., Haynie, D. L., & Saylor, K. E. (1998). Student-school bonding and adolescent problem behavior. Health Education Research, 14, 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith, P. K., Ananiadou, K., & Cowie, H. (2003). Interventions to reduce school bullying. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(9), 591–599.Google Scholar
  93. Straus, M. A., & Kantor, G. K. (2005). Definition and measurement of neglectful behavior: Some principles and guidelines. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 19–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Streiner, D. L., & Norman, D. L. (1989). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Swearer, S. M., Song, S. Y., Cary, P. T., Eagle, J. W., & Mickelson, W. T. (2001). Psychosocial correlates in bullying and victimization: The relationship between depression, anxiety, and bully/victim status. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2, 95–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Terranova, A. M. (2009). Factors that influence children’s responses to peer victimization. Child & Youth Care Forum, 38, 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Terranova, A. M., Harris, J., Kavetski, M., & Oates, R. (2011). Responding to peer victimization: A sense of control matters. Child & Youth Care Forum, 40, 419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Thornberg, R., & Knutsen, S. (2011). Teenagers’ explanations of bullying. Child & Youth Care Forum, 40, 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thornberg, R., Rosenqvist, R., & Johansson, P. (2012). Older teenagers’ explanations of bullying. Child & Youth Care Forum, 41, 327–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Unnever, J. D. (2005). Bullies, aggressive victims, and victims: Are they distinct groups? Aggressive Behavior, 31, 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Unnever, J. D., & Cornell, D. G. (2004). Middle school victims of bullying: Who reports being bullied. Aggressive Behavior, 30, 373–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang, F. M., Chen, J. Q., Xiao, W. Q., Ma, Y. T., & Zhang, M. (2012). Peer physical aggression and its association with aggressive beliefs, empathy, self-control, and cooperation skills among students in a rural town in China. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,. doi:10.1177/0886260512441256.Google Scholar
  103. Wang, S. Y., & Tamis-Lemonda, C. S. (2003). Do child-rearing values in Taiwan and the United States reflect cultural values of collectivism and individualism? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34(6), 629–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wei, H.-S., Jonson-Reid, M., & Tsao, H.-L. (2007). Bullying and victimization among Taiwanese 7th graders: A multi-method assessment. School Psychology International, 28(4), 479–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wei, H.-S., Williams, J. H., Chen, J.-K., & Chang, H.-Y. (2010). The effects of individual characteristics, teacher practice, and school organizational factors on students’ bullying: A multilevel analysis of public middle schools in Taiwan. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wong, D. S. W. (2004). School bullying and tackling strategies in Hong Kong. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48, 537–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wong, D. S. W., Cheng, C. H. K., & Ma, S. K. (2010). Program effectiveness of whole-school approach for tackling bullying in Hong Kong primary schools. Educational Research Journal, 25(1), 103–124.Google Scholar
  108. Wong, D. S. W., & Lo, T. W. (2002). School bullying in secondary schools: Teachers’ perceptions and tackling strategies. Educational Research Journal, 17(2), 253–272.Google Scholar
  109. Wong, D. S. W., Lok, P. P., Lo, T. W., & Ma, S. K. (2002). A study of school bullying in primary schools in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  110. Wong, D. S. W., Lok, P. P., Lo, T. W., & Ma, S. K. (2008). School bullying among Hong Kong Chinese primary schoolchildren. Youth and Society, 40(1), 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wright, J. P., Cullen, F. T., & Miller, J. T. (2001). Family social capital and delinquent involvement. Journal of Criminal Justice, 29, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wynne, S. L., & Joo, H. (2011). Predictors of school victimization: Individual, familial, and school factors. Crime and Delinquency, 57(3), 458–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yoneyama, S. (1999). The Japanese high school: Silence and resistance. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  114. Yoneyama, S., & Naito, A. (2003). Problems with the paradigm: The school as a factor in understanding bullying (with special reference to Japan). British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(3), 315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Youniss, J., Yates, M., & Su, Y. (1997). Social integration, community service and marijuana use in high school seniors. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(2), 245–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang, W., Gu, C., Wang, M., & Wang, Y. (2000). Gender differences in bullying and victimization among primary and junior middle school pupils [in Chinese]. Chinese Journal of Psychological Science, 23, 435–439.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Social StudiesCity University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong, SAR
  2. 2.Department of Social Work and Social AdministrationThe University of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kong, SAR

Personalised recommendations