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New aspects of glioblastoma multiforme revealed by similarities between neural and glioblastoma stem cells

  • Yoichiro Kawamura
  • Jun Takouda
  • Koji Yoshimoto
  • Kinichi Nakashima
Review

Abstract

Neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo self-renewal and generate neurons and glial cells under the influence of specific signals from surrounding environments. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumor arising from NSCs or glial precursor cells owing to dysregulation of transcriptional and epigenetic networks that control self-renewal and differentiation of NSCs. Highly tumorigenic glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a small subpopulation of GBM cells, which share several characteristic similarities with NSCs. GSCs exist atop a stem cell hierarchy and generate heterogeneous populations that participate in tumor propagation, drug resistance, and relapse. During multimodal treatment, GSCs de-differentiate and convert into cells with malignant characteristics, and thus play critical roles in tumor propagation. In contrast, differentiation therapy that induces GBM cells or GSCs to differentiate into a neuronal or glial lineage is expected to inhibit their proliferation. Since stem cell differentiation is specified by the cells’ epigenetic status, understanding their stemness and the epigenomic situation in the ancestor, NSCs, is important and expected to be helpful for developing treatment modalities for GBM. Here, we review the current findings regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of NSC fate in the developing brain, as well as those of GBM and GSCs. Furthermore, considering the similarities between NSCs and GSCs, we also discuss potential new strategies for GBM treatment.

Keywords

Differentiation therapy Epigenetics Glioblastoma multiforme Glioblastoma stem cells Neural stem cells 

Abbreviations

2-HG

2-hydroxyglutarate

5hmC

5-hydroxymethyl cytosine

α-KG

α-ketoglutaric acid

Ascl1

Achaete scute homolog 1

ATRX

Alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked

bFGF

Basic fibroblast growth factor

BMPR1B

bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1 B

CNTF

Ciliary neurotrophic factor

DNMTs

DNA methyltransferases

ES

Embryonic stem cell

EZH2

Enhancer of zeste homolog 2

G34R/V

Substitution of glycine 34 with arginine or valine

GBM

Glioblastoma multiforme

G-CIMP

CpG island methylator phenotype of glioma

GSC

Glioblastoma stem cell

H3K9

Histone 3, lysine 9

HAT

Histone acetyltransferase

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

HOTAIR

Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA

IDH1

Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1

iPS

Induced pluripotent stem cell

KMT

Lysine methyltransferase

K27 M

Substitution of lysine 27 with methionine

LEF

Lymphoid enhancer factor

lncRNA

Long non-coding RNA

MGMT

O6-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase

miR

MicroRNA

ncRNA

Non-coding RNA

NeuroD

Neurogenic differentiation

NICD

Notch intracellular domain

Neurog1

Neurogenin 1

NSC

Neural stem cell

PRC1/2

Polycomb repressor complex 1/2

REST1

Repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor

RTK

Receptor tyrosine kinase

SCP1

Small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1

STAT

Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription

TCF

T-cell factor

TCGA

The Cancer Genome Atlas

TET

Ten-eleven-translocation

TMZ

Temozolomide

TSA

Trichostatin A

VPA

Valproic acid

Notes

Acknowledgements

We apologize to colleagues whose work we may not have been able to be included in this review due to space constraints.We thank all of the members of the Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Department of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Kyushu University, for their valuable comments, and Elizabeth Nakajima for critical reading of this manuscript. This work was supported by MEXT KAKENHI (16H06527) to K. N.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoichiro Kawamura
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jun Takouda
    • 1
  • Koji Yoshimoto
    • 2
  • Kinichi Nakashima
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Basic Stem Cell Biology, Department of Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medical SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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