Human kidney proximal tubule cells are vulnerable to the effects of Rauwolfia serpentina
- 315 Downloads
Rauwolfia serpentina (or Snake root plant) is a botanical dietary supplement marketed in the USA for maintaining blood pressure. Very few studies have addressed the safety of this herb, despite its wide availability to consumers. Its reported pleiotropic effects underscore the necessity for evaluating its safety. We used a human kidney cell line to investigate the possible negative effects of R. serpentina on the renal system in vitro, with a specific focus on the renal proximal tubules. We evaluated cellular and mitochondrial toxicity, along with a variety of other kidney-specific toxicology biomarkers. We found that R. serpentina was capable of producing highly detrimental effects in our in vitro renal cell system. These results suggest more studies are needed to investigate the safety of this dietary supplement in both kidney and other target organ systems.
KeywordsKidney proximal tubule Rauwolfia serpentina Nephrotoxicity HK-2
Reactive oxygen species
Mitochondrial membrane potential
Kidney injury molecule-1
We thank Dr. Vijayasankar Raman and Dr. Ikhlas Khan at the University of Mississippi NCNPR for their contributions in authenticating and providing R. serpentina material.
- Armstrong B, White G, Skegg D, Doll. R, Rauwolfia derivatives and breast cancer in hypertensive women. Lancet. 1976;Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 7975 308, 8–12. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(76)92966-4
- ars-grin.gov. USDA Agricultural Research Service ARS: Chemicals in Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) BENTH. ex KURZ (apocynaceae), Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases [WWW Document URL http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/farmacy2.pl];(2015) Accessed 11 Feb 2015.
- Bhatia BB. On use of Rauwolfia serpentina in high blood pressure. J Indian Med. 1942;11:262–5.Google Scholar
- Chakravarty NK, Rai Chaudhuri MN, Chaudhuri RN. Rauwolfia serpentina in essential hypertension. Indian M Gaz. 1951;86:348–54.Google Scholar
- Dey A, De JN. Ethnobotanical aspects of Rauvolfia serpentina (L). Benth. ex Kurz. in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. J Med Plant Res. 2011;5:144–50.Google Scholar
- FDA.gov, C. for F.S. and A: Dietary supplements [WWW Document]. URL http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/default.htm (2014) Accessed 14 Nov 14).
- Gillespie C. After recalls, dietary supplements with banned drugs stay on market. Food Poison Bull;2014Google Scholar
- Gupta JC, Deb AK, Kahali BS. Preliminary observations on use of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. in treatment of mental disorders. Indian M Gaz. 1943;78:547–9.Google Scholar
- Khandrika L, Koul S, Meacham RB, Koul HK. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44174. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044174.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klaassen C. Casarett & Doull’s toxicology: the basic science of poisons, Eighth edition. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2013.Google Scholar
- Kumaria R, Rathib B, Ranic A, Bhatnagar S. Rauvolfia serpentina L. Benth. ex Kurz.: phytochemical. Pharmacol Ther Asp. 2013;56:348–55.Google Scholar
- Lindstrom A, Ooyen C, Lynch M, Blumenthal M, Kawa K. Sales of herbal dietary supplements increase by 7.9% in 2013, marking a decade of rising sales: turmeric supplements climb to top ranking in natural channel. HerbalGram. 2014;103:52–6.Google Scholar
- NIH.gov, D: Products by dietary ingredient of the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) [WWW Document]. URL http://dsld.nlm.nih.gov/dsld/rptIngredient.jsp?db=adsld&item=N%2CN-DIMETHYL-B-PHENYLETHYLAMINE+HCL (2015). Accessed 23 Mar 2015
- Roy PK. Effect of Rauwolfia serpentina on manic patients. Indian J Neurol Psychiatry. 1950;2:59–62.Google Scholar
- Vaidya VS Bonventre JV Ferguson MA. Biomarkers of acute kidney injury, in: Comprehensive toxicology. Elsevier;2010. p. 1–15.Google Scholar