Effect of N-salicyloyltryptamine (STP), a novel tryptamine analogue, on parameters of cell viability, oxidative stress, and immunomodulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages
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Immunomodulatory actions exerted by some classes of tryptamines, such as benzoyltryptamine analogues, suggest these molecules as promising candidates to develop new therapies to treat conditions associated to acute and chronic pain and inflammation. N-salicyloyltryptamine (STP) was observed to act as an anticonvulsive agent and exert antinociceptive effects in mouse. In the present work, we performed a screening of cytotoxic, cytoprotective, immunomodulatory, and redox properties of STP in RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with hydrogen peroxide and LPS. Our results show that STP presents no cytotoxicity in the range of 0.001 to 1 μg/mL, but doses of 50 and 100 μg/mL caused loss of cell viability (IC50 = 22.75 μg/mL). Similarly, STP at 0.001 to 1 μg/mL did not cause oxidative stress to RAW 264.7 cells, although it did not prevent cell death induced by H2O2 0.5 mM. At 1 μg/mL, STP reversed some redox and inflammatory parameters induced by LPS. These include thiol (sulfhydryl) oxidation, superoxide dismutase activation, and morphological changes associated to macrophage activation. Besides, STP significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β release, as well as CD40 and TNF-α protein upregulation. Signaling events induced by LPS, such as phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and IκBα and p65 nuclear translocation (NF-kB activation) were also inhibited by STP. These data indicate that STP is able to modulate inflammatory parameters at doses that do not interfere in cell viability.
KeywordsN-salicyloyltryptamine Inflammation Cytokines LPS Oxidative stress RAW 264.7
This work was funded by grants from the Brazilian governmental agencies FAPERGS (PqG 12/0998-0, ARD 11/1893-7, PRONEX 1000274) CAPES (PROCAD 066/2007), CNPq, IBN-Net (#01.06.0842-00), INCT-EN, and PROPESQ-UFRGS.
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