Cell Biology and Toxicology

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 31–46 | Cite as

Selenium interactions and toxicity: a review

Selenium interactions and toxicity


Selenium is an essential trace element for mammals. Through selenoproteins, this mineral participates in various biological processes such as antioxidant defence, thyroid hormone production, and immune responses. Some reports indicate that a human organism deficient in selenium may be prone to certain diseases. Adverse health effects following selenium overexposure, although very rare, have been found in animals and people. Contrary to selenium, arsenic and cadmium are regarded as toxic elements. Both are environmental and industrial pollutants, and exposure to excessive amounts of arsenic or cadmium can pose a threat to many people’s health, especially those living in polluted regions. Two other elements, vanadium and chromium(III) in trace amounts are believed to play essential physiological functions in mammals. This review summarizes recent studies on selenium interactions with arsenic and cadmium and selenium interactions with vanadium and chromium in mammals. Human studies have demonstrated that selenium may reduce arsenic accumulation in the organism and protect against arsenic-related skin lesions. Selenium was found to antagonise the prooxidant and genotoxic effects of arsenic in rodents and cell cultures. Also, studies on selenium effects against oxidative stress induced by cadmium in various animal tissues produced promising results. Reports suggest that selenium protection against toxicity of arsenic and cadmium is mediated via sequestration of these elements into biologically inert conjugates. Selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes probably play a secondary role in arsenic and cadmium detoxification. So far, few studies have evaluated selenium effects on chromium(III) and vanadium actions in mammals. Still, they show that selenium may interact with these minerals. Taken together, the recent findings regarding selenium interaction with other elements extend our understanding of selenium biological functions and highlight selenium as a potential countermeasure against toxicity induced by arsenic and cadmium.


Arsenic Cadmium Selenium interactions Toxicity Trace elements 







Cadmium chloride




Trivalent chromium


Glutathione peroxidase


Reduced glutathione


Hydrogen peroxide


Lipid peroxidation




Sodium arsenite


Sodium arsenate


Sodium selenite


Sodium selenate


Sodium metavanadate


Reactive oxygen species


Superoxide dismutase




Thioredoxin reductase




Vanadyl sulphate




  1. Abernathy CO, Thomas DJ, Calderon RL. Health effects and risk assessment of arsenic. J Nutr. 2003;133:1536S–8S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anke M. The essentiality of ultra trace elements for reproduction and pre- and postnatal development. In: Chandra RK, editor. Trace elements in nutrition of children-II. New York: Vevey/Raven; 1991. p. 130–2.Google Scholar
  3. ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for vanadium (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2009.Google Scholar
  4. Baran EJ. Vanadium detoxification: chemical and biochemical aspects. Chem Biodivers. 2008;5:1475–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Battin EE, Brumaghim JL. Antioxidant activity of sulfur and selenium: a review of reactive oxygen species scavenging, glutathione peroxidase, and metal-binding antioxidant mechanisms. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2009;55:1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battin EE, Zimmerman MT, Ramoutar RR, Quarles CE, Brumaghim JL. Preventing metal-mediated oxidative DNA damage with selenium compounds. Metallomics. 2011;3:503–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernard A. Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:557–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bishayee A, Waghray A, Patel MA, Chatterjee M. Vanadium in the detection, prevention and treatment of cancer: the in vivo evidence. Cancer Lett. 2010;294:1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biswas S, Talukder G, Sharma A. Prevention of cytotoxic effects of arsenic by short-term dietary supplementation with selenium in mice in vivo. Mutat Res. 1999;441:155–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Błasiak J, Kowalik J. A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium. Mutat Res. 2000;469:135–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Broome CS, McArdle F, Kyle JAM, Andrews F, Lowe NM, Hart CA, et al. An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:154–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brzóska MM, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. Disorders in bone metabolism of female rats chronically exposed to cadmium. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005;202:68–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burns FJ, Rossman T, Vega K, Uddin A, Vogt S, Lai B, et al. Mechanism of selenium-induced inhibition of arsenic-enhanced UVR carcinogenesis in mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:703–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlson BA, Yoo MH, Shrimali RK, Irons R, Gladyshev VN, Hatfield DL, et al. Role of selenium-containing proteins in T-cell and macrophage function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010;69:300–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen Y, Hall M, Graziano JH, Slavkovich V, van Geen A, Parvez F, et al. A prospective study of blood selenium levels and the risk of arsenic-related premalignant skin lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chung JS, Haque R, Guha Mazumder DN, Moore LE, Ghosh N, Samanta S, et al. Blood concentration of methionine, selenium, beta-carotene and other micronutrients in a case-control study of arsenic-induced skin lesions in West Bengal, India. Environ Res. 2006;101:230–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark LC, Combs Jr GF, Turnbull BW, Slate EH, Chalker DK, Chow J, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA. 1996;276:1957–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dodig S, Čepelak I. The facts and controversies about selenium. Acta Pharm. 2004;54:261–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Domingo JL. Prevention by chelating agents of metal-induced developmental toxicity. Reprod Toxicol. 1995;9:105–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, Turnbull BW, Combs GF, Slate EH, Fischbach LA, et al. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:630–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Duntas LH. Selenium and inflammation: underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:443–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. El Heni J, Messaoudi I, Hamouda F, Kerkeni A. Protective effects of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the liver and kidney of the rat: histology and Cd accumulation. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3522–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El-Sharaky AS, Newairy AA, Badreldeen MM, Eweda SM, Sheweita SA. Protective role of selenium against renal toxicity induced by cadmium in rats. Toxicology. 2007;235:185–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evangelou AM. Vanadium in cancer treatment. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002;42:249–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fan AM, Kizer KW. Selenium nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects. West J Med. 1990;153:160–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. FAO/WHO (2002) Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation Bangkok, Thailand. Chapter 15 Selenium. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the Unitated Nations, Rome, 2002Google Scholar
  27. Gailer J. Arsenic–selenium and mercury–selenium bonds in biology. Coord Chem Rev. 2007;251:234–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gailer J. Chronic toxicity of AsIII in mammals: the role of (GS)2AsSe. Biochimie. 2009;91:1268–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gailer J, George GN, Pickering IJ, Prince RC, Ringwald S, Pemberton JE, et al. A metabolic link between arsenite and selenite: the seleno-bis(S glutathionyl) arsinium ion. J Am Chem Soc. 2000a;122:4637–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gailer J, George GN, Pickering IJ, Madden S, Prince RC, Yu EY, et al. Structural basis of the antagonism between inorganic mercury and selenium in mammals. Chem Res Toxicol. 2000b;13:1135–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gailer J, George GN, Pickering IJ, Prince RC, Younis HS, Winzerling JJ. Biliary excretion of [(GS)(2)AsSe](−) after intravenous injection of rabbits with arsenite and selenate. Chem Res Toxicol. 2002a;15:1466–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gailer J, Madden S, Buttigieg GA, Denton MB, Younis HS. Identification of [(GS)2AsSe] in rabbit bile by size-exclusion chromatography and simultaneous multielement-specific detection by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Appl Organometal Chem. 2002b;16:72–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ganyc D, Talbot S, Konate F, Jackson S, Schanen B, Cullen W, et al. Impact of trivalent arsenicals on selenoprotein synthesis. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:346–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garelick H, Jones H, Dybowska A, Valsani-Jones E. Arsenic pollution sources. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;197:17–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Glass RS, Berry MJ, Block E, Boakye HT, Carlson BA, Gailer J, et al. Insights into the chemical biology of selenium. Phosphorus Sulfur. 2008;183:924–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gromadzińska J, Wąsowicz W, Skłodowska M, Bulikowski W, Rydzyński K. The influence of atmospheric chromium on selenium content and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of tannery workers. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104:1312–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gromadzińska J, Reszka E, Bruzelius K, Wąsowicz W, Åkesson B. Selenium and cancer: biomarkers of selenium status and molecular action of selenium supplements. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47:29–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guha Mazumder DN. Chronic arsenic toxicity & human health. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:436–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Haider SS, Abdel-Gayoum AA, El-Fakhri M, Ghwarsha KM. Effect of selenium on vanadium toxicity in different regions of rat brain. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1998;17:23–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Han SG, Castranova V, Vallyathan V. Comparative cytotoxicity of cadmium and mercury in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and its role in oxidative stress and induction of heat shock protein 70. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007;70:852–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hurná E, Siklenka P, Hurná S. Effect of selenium on cadmium genotoxicity investigated by micronucleus assay. Vet Med -Czech. 1997;42:339–42.Google Scholar
  42. IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer 1990. Chromium and chromium compounds. In: Chromium, nickel and welding, Summary of data reported and evaluation. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 49:49.Google Scholar
  43. IARC, International Agency for Research Cancer 2006. Vanadium pentoxide. In: Cobalt in hard metals and cobalt sulfate, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide and vanadium pentoxide. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 86:227–92.Google Scholar
  44. Ip C. Lessons from basic research in selenium and cancer prevention. J Nutr. 1998;128:1845–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety 2009. World Health Organisation. Inorganic chromium (III) compounds. Concise International Chemical Assesment Document 76.Google Scholar
  46. IRC, International Water and Sanitation Centre 2007. Petrusevsky B, Sharma S, Schippers JC, Shordt K. Arsenic in drinking water, Thematic Overview Paper 17.Google Scholar
  47. Irons R, Carlson BA, Hatfield DL, Davis CD. Both selenoproteins and low molecular weight selenocompounds reduce colon cancer risk in mice with genetically impaired selenoprotein expression. J Nutr. 2006;136:1311–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ishrat T, Parveen K, Khan MM, Khuwaja G, Khan MB, Yousuf S, et al. Selenium prevents cognitive decline and oxidative damage in rat model of streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer’s type. Brain Res. 2009;1281:117–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Järup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull. 2003;68:167–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jomova K, Jenisova Z, Feszterova M, Baros S, Liska J, Hudecova D, et al. Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease. J Appl Toxicol. 2011;31:95–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Köhrle J, Gärtner R. Selenium and thyroid. Best Pract Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;23:815–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kolsteren P. Kashin–Beck disease. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1992;72:81–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigo R, et al. Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science. 2003;300:1439–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Laclaustra M, Navas-Acien A, Stranges S, Ordovas JM, Guallar E. Serum selenium concentrations and hypertension in the US population. Circ Circardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2009;2:369–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lai R, Wang Y, Li X, Yu RA. Effect of selenium and arsenic on oxidative stress, DNA oxidative damage and repair in HepG2 cells. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2008;37:645–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lau FC, Bagchi M, Sen CK, Bagchi D. Nutrigenomic basis of beneficial effects of chromium(III) on obesity and diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;317:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lazarus M, Orct T, Jurasoviæ J, Blanuša M. The effect of dietary selenium supplementation on cadmium absorption and retention in suckling rats. Biometals. 2009;22:973–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lei C, Niu X, Ma X, Wei J. Is selenium deficiency really the cause of Keshan disease? Environ Geochem Health. 2011;33:183–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Levander OA. Metabolic interrelationships between arsenic and selenium. Environ Health Perspect. 1977;19:159–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Li JL, Gao R, Li S, Wang JT, Tang ZX, Xu SW. Testicular toxicity induced by dietary cadmium in cocks and ameliorative effect by selenium. Biometals. 2010;23:695–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lippman SM, Klien EA, Goodman PJ, Lucia MS, Thompson IM, Ford LG, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009;301:39–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Liu T, He W, Yan C, Qi Y, Zhang Y. Roles of reactive oxygen species and mitochondria in cadmium-induced injury of liver cells. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011;27:249–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lovell MA, Xiong S, Lyubartseva G, Markesbery WR. Organoselenium (Sel-Plex diet) decreases amyloid burden and RNA and DNA oxidative damage in APP/PS1 mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:1527–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lu J, Holmgren A. Selenoproteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:723–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacFarquhar JK, Broussard DL, Melstrom P, Hutchinson R, Wolkin A, Martin C, et al. Acute selenium toxicity associated with a dietary supplement. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:256–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Manley SA, George GN, Pickering IJ, Glass RS, Prenner EJ, Yamdagni R, et al. The seleno bis(S-glutathionyl) arsinium ion is assembled in erythrocytes lysate. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006;19:601–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Medeiros MG, Rodrigues AS, Batoréu MC, Laires A, Rueff J, Zhitkovich A. Elevated levels of DNA-protein crosslinks and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of tannery workers exposed to trivalent chromium. Mutagenesis. 2003;18:19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Meibian Z, Zhijian C, Qing C, Hua Z, Jianlin L, Jiliang H. Investigating DNA damage in tannery workers occupationally exposed to trivalent chromium using comet assay. Mutat Res. 2008;654:45–51.Google Scholar
  69. Messaoudi I, El Heni J, Hammouda F, Saïd K, Kerkeni A. Protective effects of selenium, zinc or their combination on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat kidney. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009;130:152–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Messaoudi I, Banni M, Saïd L, Saïd K, Kerkeni A. Involvement of selenoprotein P and GPx4 gene expression in cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rat. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:94–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Messarah M, Klibet F, Boumendjel A, Abdennour C, Bouzerna N, Boulakoud MS, et al. Hepatoprotective role and antioxidant capacity of selenium on arsenic-induced liver injury in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2010.08.002.
  72. Moghadaszadeh B, Beggs AH. Selenoproteins and their impact on human health through diverse physiological pathways. Physiol. 2006;21:307–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Muecke R, Schomburg L, Buentzel J, Kisters K, Micke O. Selenium or no selenium—that is the question in tumor patients: a new controversy. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010;9:136–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Navarro-Alarcon M, Cabrera-Vique C. Selenium in food and the human body: a review. Sci Total Environ. 2008;400:115–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Navas-Acien A, Bleys J, Guallar E. Selenium intake and cardiovascular risk: what is new? Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19:43–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nawrot TS, Staessen JA, Roels HA, Den Hond E, Thjis L, Fegard RH, et al. Blood pressure and blood selenium: a cross-sectional and longitudinal population study. Eur Heart J. 2007;28:628–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Newairy AA, El-Sharaky AS, Badreldeen MM, Eweda SM, Sheweita SA. The hepatoprotective effects of selenium against cadmium toxicity in rats. Toxicology. 2007;242:23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nielsen FH. How should dietary guidance be given for mineral elements with beneficial actions or suspected of being essential. J Nutr. 1996;126:2377S–85S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Nielsen FH. Summary: the clinical and nutritional importance of chromium—still debated after 50 years of research. In: Vincent JB, editor. The Nutritional Biochemistry of Chromium(III). Elsevier; 2007. p 265–76.Google Scholar
  80. Nordic Council of Ministers, Cadmium Review (Jan 2003), http://www.who.int/ifcs/documents/forums/forum5/nmr_cadmium.pdf.
  81. Novotny L, Rauko P, Kombian SB, Edafiogho IO. Selenium as a chemoprotective anti-cancer agent: reality or wishful thinking? Neoplasma. 2010;57:383–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Palus J, Lewińska D, Dziubałtowska E, Wąsowicz W, Gromadzińska J, Rydzyński K, et al. Genotoxic effects in C57BI/6J mice chronically exposed to arsenate in drinking water and modulation of the effects by low-selenium diet. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006;69:1843–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pilsner JR, Hall MN, Liu X, Ashan H, llievski V, Slavkovich V, et al. Associations of plasma selenium with arsenic and genomic methylation of leukocyte DNA in Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:113–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Prince RC, Gailer J, Gunson DE, Turner RJ, George GN, Pickering IJ. Strong poison revisited. J Inorg Biochem. 2007;101:1891–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ramoutar RR, Brumaghim JL. Effects of inorganic selenium compounds on oxidative DNA damage. J Inorg Biochem. 2007;101:1028–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Reeves MA, Hoffmann PR. The human selenoproteome: recent insights into functions and regulation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:2457–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rossman TG, Uddin AN. Selenium prevents spontaneous and arsenite-induced mutagenesis. Intr Congr Ser. 2004;1275:173–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sanchez DJ, Colomina T, Domingo JL, Corbella J. Prevention by sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (Tiron) of vanadium-induced behavioral toxicity in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999;69:249–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Santos FW, Zeni G, Rocha JBT, Weis SN, Fachinetto JM, Favero AM, et al. Diphenyl diselenide reverses cadmium-induced oxidative damage on mice tissues. Chem Biol Interact. 2005;151:159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sasakura C, Suzuki KT. Biological interaction between transition metals (Ag, Cd and Hg) selenide/sulfide and selenoprotein P. J Inorg Biochem. 1998;71:159–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schrauzer GN. Interactive effects of selenium and chromium on mammary tumor development and growth in MMTV-infected female mice and their relevance to human cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006;109:281–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schrauzer GN. Selenium and selenium-antagonistic elements in nutritional cancer prevention. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2009;29:10–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schweizer U, Bräuer AU, Köhrle J, Nitsch R, Savaskan NE. Selenium and brain function: a poorly recognized liaison. Brain Res Rev. 2004;45:164–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shrivastava S, Jadon A, Shukla S. Effect of Tiron and its combination with nutritional supplements against vanadium intoxication in female albino rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2007;32:185–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Steinbrenner H, Sies H. Protection against reactive oxygen species by selenoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1478–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stranges S, Marshall JR, Trevisan M, Natarajan R, Donahue RP, Combs GF, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation on cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality: secondary analyses in a randomized clinical trial. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:694–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Styblo M, Thomas DJ. Selenium modifies the metabolism and toxicity of arsenic in primary rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001;172:52–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Talbot S, Nelson R, Self WT. Arsenic trioxide and auranofin inhibit selenoprotein synthesis: implications for chemotherapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:940–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD. The antioxidant role of selenium and seleno-compounds. Biomed Pharmacother. 2003;57:134–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thompson KH, Orvig C. Vanadium in diabetes: 100 years from phase 0 to phase I. J Inorg Biochem. 2006;100:1925–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tsiani E, Fantus IG. Vanadium compounds, biological actions and potential as pharmacological agents. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1997;8:51–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tsou TC, Chen CL, Liu TY, Yang JL. Induction of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA by chromium(III) plus hydrogen peroxide and its prevention by scavengers. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:103–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Uddin AN, Burns FJ, Rossman TG. Vitamin E and organoselenium prevent the cocarcinogenic activity of arsenite with solar UVR in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:2179–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Valdiglesias V, Pásaro E, Méndez J, Laffon B. In vitro evaluation of selenium genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects: a review. Arch Toxicol. 2010;84:337–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Valko M, Morris H, Cronin MT. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12:1161–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact. 2006;160:1–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vincent JB. Recent developments in the biochemistry of chromium(III). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004;99:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vincent JB. Chromium: celebrating 50 years as an essential element? Dalton Trans. 2010;39:3787–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wang SS, Chen L, Xia SK, Jiang SX. Cadmium-induced cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca2+ alteration in hepatocytes and protection by selenium. Fen Zi Xi Bao Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;39:350–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Whanger PD. Selenocompounds in plants and animals and their biological significance. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:223–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. WHO. Trace elements in human nutrition and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996.Google Scholar
  112. WHO (2000a) Arsenic. In: WHO air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd edition, 2000 (CD ROM version). World Health Organization. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91.Google Scholar
  113. WHO (2000b) Cadmium. In: WHO air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd edition, 2000 (CD ROM version). World Health Organization. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91.Google Scholar
  114. Xue W, Wang Z, Chen Q, Chen J, Yang H, Xue S. High selenium status in individuals exposed to arsenic through coal-burning in Shaanxi (PR of China) modulates antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 and DNA damage. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:1312–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yang L, Wang W, Hou S, Peterson PJ, Williams WP. Effects of selenium supplementation on arsenism: an intervention trial in Inner Mongolia. Environ Geochem Health. 2002;24:359–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yen CC, Ho TJ, Wu CC, Chang CF, Su CC, Chen YW, et al. Inorganic arsenic causes cell apoptosis in mouse cerebrum through an oxidative stress-regulated signaling pathway. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:565–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yiin SJ, Chern CL, Sheu JY, Lin TH. Cadmium induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes and protection by selenium. Biometals. 1999;12:353–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zagrodzki P, Kawalec A. Interakcje selenu z pierwiastkami biogennymi i toksycznymi cz. II interakcje z rtęcią. Bromat Chem Toksykol. 2005;38:389–94.Google Scholar
  119. Zaporowska H, Ścibior A. Vanadium and its significance in animal cell metabolism. In: Nriagu JO, editor. Vanadium in the environment. Part 2. Health effects. New York: Wiley; 1998. p. 121–33.Google Scholar
  120. Zeng H, Uthus EO, Combs GF. Mechanistic aspects of the interaction between selenium and arsenic. J Inorg Biochem. 2005;99:1269–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhou YJ, Zhang SP, Liu CW, Cai YQ. The protection of selenium on ROS mediated-apoptosis by mitochondria dysfunction in cadmium-induced LLC-PK1 cells. Toxicol Vitro. 2009;23:288–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zwolak I, Zaporowska H. Preliminary studies on the effect of zinc and selenium on vanadium-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Acta Biol Hung. 2009;60:55–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zwolak I, Zaporowska H. Effects of zinc and selenium pretreatment on vanadium-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Trace Elem Elec. 2010;27:20–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cell BiologyInstitute of Environmental Protection, John Paul II Catholic University of LublinLublinPoland

Personalised recommendations