Cell Biology and Toxicology

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 457–467

Astaxanthin prevents in vitro auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytes

  • Anaysa P. Bolin
  • Rita C. Macedo
  • Douglas P. Marin
  • Marcelo P. Barros
  • Rosemari Otton
Article

Abstract

Upon mitogen sensitization, lymphocytes undergo proliferation by oxyradical-based mechanisms. Through continuous resting–restimulation cycles, lymphocytes accumulate auto-induced oxidative lesions which lead to cell dysfunction and limit their viability. Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a nutritional carotenoid that shows notable antioxidant properties. This study aims to evaluate whether the in vitro ASTA treatment can limit oxyradical production and auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytes. Activated lymphocytes treated with 5 µM ASTA showed immediate lower rates of O2•−/H2O2 production whilst NO and intracellular Ca2+ levels were concomitantly enhanced (≤4 h). In long-term treatments (>24 h), the cytotoxicity test for ASTA showed a sigmoidal dose–response curve (LC50 = 11.67 ± 0.42 µM), whereas higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in 5 µM ASTA-treated lymphocytes were associated to significant lower indexes of oxidative injury. On the other hand, lower proliferative scores of ASTA lymphocytes might be a result of diminished intracellular levels of pivotal redox signaling molecules, such as H2O2. Further studies are necessary to establish the ASTA-dose compensation point between minimizing oxidative damages and allowing efficient redox-mediated immune functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, and oxidative burst.

Keywords

Antioxidant Apoptosis Astaxanthin Carotenoid Lymphocyte Oxidative stress 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

ASTA

Astaxanthin

BHT

Butylated hydroxytoluene

BSA

Albumin

[Ca2+]i

Intracellular calcium

CAT

Catalase

Con A

Concanavalin A

DHE

Dihydroethidium

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DNPH

2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine

DTNB

5,5′-Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EGTA

Ethylene glycol tetracetic acid

GSH

Reduced glutathione

GSSG

Oxidized glutathione

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MTT

3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NBT

Nitroblue tetrazolium

NEM

N-ethylmalemide

NO

Nitric oxide

PMA

Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate

PMS

Phenazine methosulfate

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBA

Thiobarbituric acid

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anaysa P. Bolin
    • 1
  • Rita C. Macedo
    • 1
  • Douglas P. Marin
    • 1
  • Marcelo P. Barros
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rosemari Otton
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Cellular Physiology Laboratory, Postgraduate Program—Health Science, CBSCruzeiro do Sul UniversityTatuapéBrazil
  2. 2.Postgraduate Program—Health ScienceCruzeiro do Sul UniversityTatuapéBrazil
  3. 3.Postgraduate Program—Human Movement Sciences Institute of Physical Activity and Sport SciencesCruzeiro do Sul UniversityTatuapéBrazil

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