Advertisement

Catalysis Surveys from Asia

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 145–160 | Cite as

Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils and Animal Fat over Solid Acid Double-Metal Cyanide Catalysts

  • Darbha SrinivasEmail author
  • Jitendra K. Satyarthi
Article

Abstract

Biodiesel comprises of fatty acid alkyl esters prepared from vegetable oils or animal fat by esterification/transesterification with short-chain alcohols (methanol or ethanol, for example). It is a biodegradable renewable fuel. Its production is growing exponentially due to greater concerns about environmental protection and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Further, its production from non-edible oils and animal fat is more desirable than from edible oils due to lower cost of non-edible feedstocks and elimination of food verses fuel issues. Solid acid catalysts are ideal for conversion of such low-grade oils to biodiesel. Biodiesel from non-edible oils can be produced by two methods: (1) simultaneous esterification of fatty acids and transesterification of fatty acid glycerides and (2) hydrolysis of glycerides followed by esterification. This account reports the catalytic performance of solid, Fe–Zn double-metal cyanide (DMC) complexes and other acid catalysts in these transformations for biodiesel production. The factors influencing the catalytic performance of the solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production are discussed.

Keywords

Biodiesel Solid acid catalysts Double-metal cyanide Transesterification Esterification Hydrolysis 

Notes

Acknowledgment

JKS acknowledges the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi for the award of a senior research fellowship.

References

  1. 1.
    Sivasamy A, Cheah KY, Fornasiero P, Kemausuor F, Zinoviev S, Miertus S (2009) ChemSusChem 2:278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Di Serio M, Tesser R, Pengmei L, Santacesaria E (2008) Energy Fuels 22:207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Demirbas A (2008) Biodiesel: a realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Narasimharao K, Lee A, Wilson K (2007) J Biobased Mater Bioenergy 1:19Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malero JA, Iglesias J, Marales G (2009) Green Chem 11:1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Knothe G, Gerpen JV, Krahl J (2005) The biodiesel handbook. AOCS Press, UrbanaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee DW, Park YM, Lee KY (2009) Catal Surv Asia 13:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Helwani Z, Othman MR, Aziz N, Kim J, Fernando WJN (2009) Appl Catal A Gen 363:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith B, Greenwell HC, Whiting A (2009) Energy Environ Sci 2:262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dorado MP, Ballesteros E, Arnal JM, Gómez J, López FJ (2003) Fuel 82:1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Szybist JP, Song J, Alam M, Boehman AL (2007) Fuel Process Technol 88:679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Knothe G, Sharp CA, Ryan TW III (2006) Energy Fuels 20:403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kiss AA, Dimian AC, Rothenberg G (2006) Adv Synth Catal 348:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schwab AW, Bagby MO, Freedman B (1987) Fuel 66:1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Freedman B, Butterfield RO, Pryde EH (1986) J Am Oil Chem Soc 63:1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stavarache C, Vinatoru M, Nishimura R, Maed Y (2005) Ultrason Sonochem 12:367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aksoy HA, Becerik I, Karaosmanoglu F, Yamaz HC, Civelekoglu H (1990) Fuel 69:600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ma F, Hanna MA (1999) Bioresour Technol 70:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sreeprasanth PS, Srivastava R, Srinivas D, Ratnasamy P (2006) Appl Catal A Gen 314:148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yan S, Salley SO, Simon Ng KY (2009) Appl Catal A Gen 353:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bournay L, Casanave D, Delfort B, Hillion G, Chodorge JA (2005) Catal Today 106:190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bournay L, Baudot A (2006) US Patent 7138536B2Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gravereau PP, Garnier E, Hardy A (1979) Acta Crystallogr B 35:2843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Verdaguer M, Girolami GS (2005) Magnetism: molecules to materials. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen S, Hua Z, Fang Z, Qi G (2004) Polymer 45:6519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen S, Qi GR, Hua ZJ, Yan HQ (2004) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 42:6519Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kim I, Yi MJ, Byun SH, Park DW, Kim BU, Ha CS (2005) Macromol Symp 224:181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ooms P, Hofmann J, Schafer W (2005) US Patents 6953765 and 6852663Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    James MO, Donald LL, Robin LG (2002) US Patent 6359101Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mc Daniel KG, Perry MJ, Hayes JE(1999) WO 9914258Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van der Hulst H, Pogany GA, Kuyper J (1984) US Patent 4477589Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Srivastava R, Srinivas D, Ratnasamy P (2006) J Catal 241:34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Satyarthi JK, Srinivas D, Ratnasamy P (2010) Energy Fuels 24:2154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Satyarthi JK, Srinivas D, Ratnasamy P (2010) Appl Catal A Gen. doi: 10.1016/j.apcata.2010.03.047
  35. 35.
    Stern R, Hillion G, Rouxel JJ, Leporq S (1999) US Patent 5908946Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stern R, Hillion G, Rouxel JJ (2000) US Patent 6147196Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bournay L, Hillion G (2003) EU Patent 1352893 A1Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Barnebey HL (1948) J Am Oil Chem Soc 25:95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Holliday RL, King JW, List GR (1997) Ind Eng Chem Res 36:932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu Y, Lotero E, Goodwin JG Jr (2006) J Catal 243:221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mbaraka IK, Radu DR, Lin VSY, Shanks BH (2003) J Catal 219:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alonso DM, Granados ML, Mariscal R, Douhal A (2009) J Catal 262:18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tesser R, Di Serio M, Guida M, Nastasi M, Santacesaria E (2005) Ind Eng Chem Res 44:7978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tesser R, Casale L, Verde D, Di Serio M, Santacesaria E (2010) Chem Eng J 154:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aranda DAG, Santos RTP, Tapanes NCO, Ramos AD, Antunes OAC (2008) Catal Lett 122:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Peters TA, Benes NE, Holmen A, Keurentjes JTF (2006) Appl Catal A Gen 297:182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schildhauer TJ, Hoek I, Kapteijn F, Moulijn JA (2009) Appl Catal A Gen 358:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brito A, Borges ME, Otero N (2007) Energy Fuels 21:3280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Koh TS, Chung KH (2008) J Kor Ind Eng Chem 19:214Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shu Q, Yang B, Yuan H, Qing S, Zhu G (2007) Catal Commun 8:2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Furuta S, Matsuhashi H, Arata K (2004) Catal Commun 5:721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Delfort B, Le Pennec D, Lendresse C (2006) US Patent 7151187 B2Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Omota F, Demian AC, Bliek A (2003) Chem Eng Sci 58:3175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Furuta S, Matsuhashi H, Arata K (2004) Appl Catal A Gen 269:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Matsuhashi H, Miyazaki H, Kawamura Y, Nakamura H, Arata K (2001) Chem Mater 13:3038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Brei VV, Prudius SV, Melezhyk OS (2003) Appl Catal A Gen 239:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yadav GD, Murkute AD (2004) J Catal 224:218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lin VSY, Radu DR (2006) US Patent 7122688 B2Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Di Serio M, Cozzolino M, Tesser R, Patrono P, Pinzari F, Bonelli B, Santacesaria E (2007) Appl Catal A Gen 320:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chai F, Cao F, Zhai F, Chen Y, Wang X, Zhongmuisu (2007) Adv Synth Catal 349:1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Morin P, Hamad B, Sapaly G, Rocha MGC, Pries de Oliveira PG, Gonzalez WA, Sales EA, Essayem N (2007) Appl Catal A Gen 330:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vicente G, Coteron A, Martinez M, Aracil J (1998) Ind Crops Prod 8:29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dos Reis SCM, Lachter ER, Nascimento RSV, Rodriguez JAJ, Garcia Reid M (2005) J Am Oil Chem Soc 82:661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Suppes GJ, Dasari MA, Doskocil EJ, Mankidy PJ, Goff MJ (2004) Appl Catal A Gen 257:213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Barthomeuf D (1996) Catal Rev Sci Eng 38:521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Leclercq E, Finiels A, Moreau C (2001) J Am Oil Chem Soc 78:1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Xie W, Huang X, Li H (2007) Bioresour Technol 98:936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bancquart S, Vanhove C, Pouilloux Y, Barrault J (2001) Appl Catal A Gen 218:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gryglewicz S (1999) Bioresour Technol 70:249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wang L, Yang J (2007) Fuel 86:328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Demirbas A (2007) Energy Convers Manag 48:937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Liu X, He H, Wang Y, Zhu S (2007) Catal Commun 8:1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Babu NS, Sree R, Prasad PSS, Lingaiah N (2008) Energy Fuels 22:1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kawashima A, Matsubara K, Honda K (2008) Bioresour Technol 99:3439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yan S, Lu H, Liang B (2008) Energy Fuels 22:646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kim H-J, Kang B-S, Kim M-J, Park YM, Kim D-K, Lee J-S, Lee K-Y (2004) Catal Today 93:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    MacLeod CS, Harvey AP, Lee AF, Wilson K (2008) Chem Eng J 135:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Xie W, Huang X (2006) Catal Lett 107:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Xie W, Yang Z, Chun H (2007) Ind Eng Chem Res 46:7942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rusbueldt BME, Hoelderich WF (2010) 271: 290Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    D’Cruz A, Kulkarni MG, Meher LC, Dalai AK (2007) J Am Oil Chem Soc 84:937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Xie W, Li H (2006) J Mol Catal A Chem 255:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Boz N, Kara M (2009) Chem Eng Commun 196:80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Li E, Rudolph V (2008) Energy Fuels 22:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Albuquerque MCG, Jiménez-Urbistondo I, Santamaría-González J, Mérida-Robles JM, Moreno-Tost R, Rodríguez-Castellón E, Jiménez-López A, Azevedo DCS, Cavalcante CL Jr, Maireles-Torres P (2008) Appl Catal A Gen 334:35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Macala GS, Robertson AW, Johnson CL, Day ZB, Lewis RS, White MG, Iretskii AV, Ford PC (2008) Catal Lett 122:205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Corma A, Hamid SBA, Iborra S, Velty AJ (2005) J Catal 234:340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Xie W, Peng H, Chen L (2006) J Mol Catal A Chem 246:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Di Serio M, Ledda M, Cozzolino M, Minutillo G, Tesser R, Santacesaria E (2006) Ind Eng Chem Res 45:3009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schuchardt U, Vargas RM, Gelbard G (1995) J Mol Catal A Chem 99:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sercheli R, Vargas RM, Schuchardt U (1999) J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Peter SKF, Ganswindt R, Neuner H-P, Weidner E (2002) Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 104:324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fuduka H, Ondo AK, Noda H (2001) J Biosci Bioeng 92:405CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Catalysis DivisionNational Chemical LaboratoryPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations