Ultrasound-Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Enhanced Conversion of the Sugary Food Waste to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Ionic Liquid/Solid Acid Catalyst System

  • Qinghua Ji
  • Xiaojie Yu
  • Abu El-Gasim A. Yagoub
  • Mo Li
  • Olugbenga Abiola Fakayode
  • Dong Yan
  • Cunshan ZhouEmail author
  • Li Chen


The purpose of this study was to efficiently convert the sugary food waste (SFW) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by ultrasound-[Bmim]Cl pretreatment in ionic liquids (ILs)-ion exchange resin system. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on SFW and the effect of ultrasonic frequency, ILs, acid resin and catalyst load on SFW conversion were studied. The kinetic curve and the relationship between products and intermediates were studied. In addition, the structure of SFW was also studied by FT-IR and SEM. The results indicated ultrasound-[Bmim]Cl pretreatment can significantly promote the dissolution of cellulose in SFW, and the optimal ultrasonic frequency, solvent and catalyst were 20 + 40 + 60 kHz, [Bmim]Cl and D001-cc resin, respectively; under the best reaction conditions, the maximum 5-HMF yields from the orange and apple wastes were 42.15 and 44.66 mol%, respectively. The kinetic studies showed that the early stage of 100 and 120 °C was mainly the hydrolysis reaction, and late stage was mainly isomerization and dehydration reaction; the early stage of 140 and 160 °C was a rapid hydrolysis and dehydration reaction, and the late stage was mainly the rehydration reaction of 5-HMF. The relationship between the intermediate precursors and 5-HMF showed that the rates of formation and rehydration of 5-HMF increased with the increase in temperature, and the formation reaction was mainly concentrated in zone II. The FT-IR and SEM results of degradation products showed that cellulose in SFW was more easily hydrolyzed at high temperature and long time.

Graphic Abstract


Sugary food waste 5-HMF Ultrasound-ILs Pretreatment Acidic solid catalyst 



The authors are grateful for the support provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21676125, 31801552), Science and Technology Major Project of Anhui (No. 18030701152), the Policy Guidance Program (Research Cooperation) of Jiangsu (No. BY2016072-03), the Social Development Program (General Project) of Jiangsu (No. BE2016779) and 333 high level talents of Jiangsu (No. 2018-26).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

10562_2019_3059_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1173 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qinghua Ji
    • 1
  • Xiaojie Yu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Abu El-Gasim A. Yagoub
    • 3
  • Mo Li
    • 1
  • Olugbenga Abiola Fakayode
    • 1
  • Dong Yan
    • 1
  • Cunshan Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Li Chen
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Food and Biological EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangChina
  2. 2.School of Biological and Food EngineeringChuzhou UniversityChuzhouChina
  3. 3.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of ZalingeiZalingeiSudan
  4. 4.Co-Innovation Center of Jiangsu Marine Bio-Industry TechnologyJiangsu Ocean UniversityLianyungangChina

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