Cr-Doped CeO2 Nanorods for CO Oxidation: Insights into Promotional Effect of Cr on Structure and Catalytic Performance

  • Perala VenkataswamyEmail author
  • Devaiah Damma
  • Deshetti Jampaiah
  • Deboshree Mukherjee
  • Muga Vithal
  • Benjaram M. ReddyEmail author


Development of non-noble metal catalysts for oxidation of CO is an important subject for reducing the automotive emissions. Recently, shape-controlled synthesis of CeO2 has increasingly attracted the attention of researchers due to its size- and morphology-dependent unique properties. Following this line of thinking, herein, we successfully report the synthesis of Cr-doped CeO2 (Ce1−xCrxO2−δ; X = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15) nanorods with various Cr contents by a facile hydrothermal method. Structural, surface, optical, and redox properties of the Cr-doped CeO2 nanorods were investigated by various techniques, namely, ICP-OES, TEM-HRTEM, FE-SEM/EDX/EDS, XRD, BET, Raman, UV–vis DRS, PL, XPS, H2-TPR, and O2-TPD. The catalytic performance was evaluated for CO oxidation. For comparison, the efficiency of Cr2O3 was also studied for CO oxidation under identical conditions. As revealed by various characterization results, the chromium ions were doped into the ceria lattice (formation of Ce–O–Cr solid solution), which enhanced the intrinsic properties such as oxygen vacancy concentration and surface area. It was found that the Cr-doped CeO2 nanorods show superior CO oxidation activity than the pristine counterparts (CeO2 nanorods and Cr2O3). The highest CO oxidation efficiency was achieved with the light-off temperature of T50 = 261 °C, when the Cr doping amount was 10% (Ce0.9Cr0.1O2−δ). A high specific surface area, more number of surface oxygen vacancies, a high concentration of Ce3+, and enhanced oxygen reducibility of Ce0.9Cr0.1O2−δ nanorods were found to be responsible for its superior catalytic performance. Further, the Ce0.9Cr0.1O2−δ nanorods exhibited a steady CO conversion over a period of 55 h investigated. The obtained results are expected to have a significant impact on the use of non-noble metal based Cr-doped CeO2 nanorods in environmental applications.

Graphic Abstract

The Cr-doped CeO2 nanorods with Ce0.9Cr0.1O2−δ composition showed enhanced CO oxidation performance at a lower temperature (~ 261 °C) than that of pristine CeO2 nanorods (338 °C) and Cr2O3 (361 °C) catalyst. This behaviour is a result of enhancement of oxygen vacancies, surface Ce3+ species, low-temperature reducibility, and high surface area.


CeO2 nanorods Cr-doping Oxygen vacancies Low-temperature reducibility CO oxidation Structure-performance relationship 



PV is thankful to the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), New Delhi for financial support in the form of Research Associate (Grant No: EMR/2016/001533). MV thanks the University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for BSR fellowship. BMR thanks the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Mumbai for the award of the Raja Ramanna Fellowship.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts to declare.

Supplementary material

10562_2019_3014_MOESM1_ESM.doc (3.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 3519 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryOsmania UniversityHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied ScienceUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Centre for Advanced Materials and Industrial Chemistry (CAMIC), School of ScienceRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Catalysis and Fine Chemicals DepartmentCSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical TechnologyHyderabadIndia

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