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Effects of supercritical fluid CO2 and 25 kGy gamma irradiation on the initial mechanical properties and histological appearance of tendon allograft

  • Mazyar Irani
  • Vedran Lovric
  • William R. Walsh
Article

Abstract

Tendon allografts, when autograft options are limited or when obtaining an autograft is not aligned with the patients’ best interest, play an important role in tendon and ligament reconstruction. To minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission tissue banks perform screening tests and the allografts cleaned are sterilized. The current study examines and compares the initial mechanical properties and histological appearance of supercritical CO2 (SCCO2)-treated and gamma-irradiated porcine extensor tendons. Thirty intact porcine forelimb extensor tendons randomized equally into three groups: control group, gamma-irradiation group, and SCCO2-treated group. Once treated, histological assessment and histomorphologic measurements were made on the histological sections obtained from each tendon while stiffness and ultimate failure loads were evaluated from tensile testing. Histological evaluation of gamma-irradiated tendons showed significant disruption to the hierarchical morphology of the fascicle bundles, which was not evident in SCCO2-treated specimens. Histomorphologic measurements showed a significant increase for measured dead space (void) between tendon fibrils of the gamma-irradiated group comparing to both control and SCCO2 treated groups (p < 0.01). There was a significant reduction in the ultimate failure load for tendons treated by gamma-irradiation compared to the control group (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was detected between control and SCCO2-treated tendons in the ultimate failure load. Stiffness values were not significantly different between three-study groups. This study suggests that while gamma-irradiation has a deleterious effect on mechanical properties of tendon tissue, SCCO2 does not alter the biomechanical properties and the histological structure of porcine extensor tendons.

Keywords

Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2Gamma-irradiation Stiffness Ultimate failure loads Soft-tissue processing Tendon allograft 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this study clarify that they have not accepted any funds for this study and had no conflict of interest related to this study to declare.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mazyar Irani
    • 1
  • Vedran Lovric
    • 1
  • William R. Walsh
    • 1
  1. 1.Surgical and Orthopaedic Research Laboratories Prince of Wales Clinical School, Prince of Wales HospitalUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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