Cell and Tissue Banking

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 203–215 | Cite as

Historical perspectives and the future of adverse reactions associated with haemopoietic stem cells cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide

  • Michael A. CoxEmail author
  • Jens Kastrup
  • Mikulas Hrubiško


A retrospective review of the published literature identified several hundred adverse reactions (e.g. nausea, chills, cardiac arrhythmias, neurological symptoms and respiratory arrest) associated with the transplantation of stem cells cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide. The occurrences of these are generally accepted as commonplace, as the majority of reactions are transient, whilst a few patients may require clinical treatment. This exploratory study is a collation of the historical data and the expectations for the notification of serious adverse reactions. Outline information is presented on the development of related European Directives, some technical aspects of dimethyl sulfoxide and the sequential stages of preservation and administration.


Dimethyl sulfoxide Adverse reactions Stem cells Transplantation Toxicity 



We would like to acknowledge the informative suggestions and scientific input by the late Dr Alan H. Cox. The authors also appreciate the technical and editorial review of earlier drafts by Joachim R. Karlsen and Charlotte Henriksen of the Danish Medicines Agency.


  1. Abdelkefi A, Lakhal A, Moojat N, Hamed LB, Fekih J, Ladeb S, Torjman L, Benothman T (2009) Severe neurotoxicity associated with dimethyl sulphoxide following PBSCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 44(5):323–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrahamsen JF, Bakken AM, Bruserud O (2002) Cryopreserving human peripheral blood progenitor cells with 5% rather than 10% DMSO results in less apoptosis and necrosis in CD34+ cells. Transfusion 42(12):1573–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abrahamsen JF, Rusten L, Bakken AM, Bruserud O (2004) Better preservation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells when human peripheral blood progenitor cells are cryopreserved with 5% dimethylsulfoxide instead of 10% dimethylsulfoxide. Transfusion 44(5):785–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ademokun JA, Chapman C, Dunn J, Lander D, Mair K, Proctor SJ et al (1997) Umbilical cord blood collection and separation for haematopoietic progenitor cell banking. Bone Marrow Transplant 19(10):1023–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adorno G, Bruno A, Caravita T, Venditti A, Ballatore G, Santinelli S et al (1998) Red blood cell depletion of cord blood using hydroxyethylstarch double sedimentation: analysis of 40 cases. Clin Lab Haematol 20(6):341–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akkok CA, Liseth K, Nesthus I, Lokeland T, Tefre K, Bruserud O et al (2008) Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells cryopreserved with 5 and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide alone give comparable hematopoietic reconstitution after transplantation. Transfusion 48(5):877–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akkok CA, Liseth K, Hervig T, Ryningen A, Bruserud O, Ersvaer E (2009) Use of different DMSO concentrations for cryopreservation of autologous peripheral blood stem cell grafts does not have any major impact on levels of leukocyte and platelet-derived soluble mediators. Cytotherapy 11(6):749–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alessandrino P, Bernasconi P, Caldera D, Colombo A, Bonfichi M, Malcovati L et al (1999) Adverse events occurring during bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell infusion: analysis of 126 cases. Bone Marrow Transplant 23(6):533–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angelini A, Iacone A, Dragani A, Accorsi P, D’Antonio D, Geraci L et al (1988) Enrichment of marrow haemopoietic progenitor cells using a blood cell processor. Int J Artif Organs 11(1):57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ayello J, Hesdorffer C, Reiss RF (1995) A semi automated technique for volume reduction of stem cell suspensions for transplantation. J Hematother 4:545–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bakken AM, Bruserud O, Abrahamsen JF (2003) No differences in colony formation of peripheral blood stem cells frozen with 5 or 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. J Hematother Stem Cell Res 12(3):351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauwens D, Hantson P, Laterre PF, Michaux L, Latinne D, De Tourtchaninoff M, Cosnard G, Hernalsteen D (2005) Recurrent seizures and sustained encephalopathy associated with dimethylsulfoxide-preserved stem cell infusion. Leuk Lymphoma 46(11):1671–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beaujean F, Hartmann O, Kuentz M, Le Forestier C, Divine M, Duedari N (1991) A simple efficient washing procedure for cryopreserved human haemopoietic stem cells prior to infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 8(4):291–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Benekli M, Anderson B, Wentling D, Bernstein S, Czuczman M, McCarthy P (2000) Severe respiratory depression after dimethyl sulphoxide-containing autologous stem cell infusion in a patient with AL amyloidosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 25(12):1299–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bojanic I, Cepulic BG, Mazic S, Batinic D, Nemet D, Labar B (2008) Toxicity related to autologous peripheral blood haematopoietic progenitor cell infusion is associated with number of granulocytes in graft, gender and diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Vox Sang 95(1):70–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bond GR, Curry SC, Dahl DW (1989) Dimethyl sulphoxide-induced encephalopathy. Lancet 1(8647):1134–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Calmels B, Houze P, Hengesse JC, Ducrot T, Malenfant C, Chabannon C (2003) Preclinical evaluation of an automated closed fluid management device: cytomate, for washing out DMSO from hematopoietic stem cell grafts after thawing. Bone Marrow Transplant 31(9):823–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calmels B, Lemarie C, Esterni B, Malugani C, Charbonnier A, Coso D et al (2007) Occurrence and severity of adverse events after autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell infusion are related to the amount of granulocytes in the apheresis product. Transfusion 47(7):1268–1275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen-Plotkin AS, Vossel KA, Samuels MA, Chen MH (2007) Encephalopathy, stroke and myocardial infarction with DMSO use in stem cell transplantation. Neurology 68:859–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark T, Murray JS, Lane P, Politzer P (2008) Why are dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl sulfone such good solvents? J Mol Model 14(8):689–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cordoba R, Arrieta R, Kerguelen A, Hernandez-Navarro F (2007) The occurrence of adverse events during the infusion of autologous peripheral blood stem cells is related to the number of granulocytes in the leukapheresis product. Bone Marrow Transplant 40(11):1063–1067PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Corso S, Vukelja SJ, Wiener D, Baker WJ (1993) Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage following autologous bone marrow infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 12(3):301–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Curcoy AI, Alcorta I, Estella J, Rives S, Toll T, Tuset E (2002) Cryopreservation of HPCs with high cell concentration in 5% DMSO for transplantation to children. Transfusion 42(7):962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Darabi K, Brown JR, Kao GS (2005) Paradoxical embolism after peripheral blood stem cell infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 36(6):561–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis JM, Rowley SD, Braine HG, Piantadosi S, Santos GW (1990) Clinical toxicity of cryopreserved bone marrow graft infusion. Blood 75(3):781–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Decot V, Houze P, Stoltz JF, Bensoussan D (2009) Quantification of residual dimethylsulfoxide after washing cryopreserved stem cells and thawing tissue grafts. Biomed Mater Eng 19(4–5):293–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dhodapkar M, Goldberg SL, Tefferi A, Gertz MA (1994) Reversible encephalopathy after cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell infusion. Am J Hematol 45(2):187–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 27th January 2003 setting standards of quality and safety for the collection, testing, processing, storage and distribution of human blood and blood components and amending Directive 2001/83/EC. Official Journal of the European Union, L33/30, 08/02/2003Google Scholar
  29. Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 31st March 2004 on setting the standards of quality and safety for the donation procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells. Official Journal of the European Union, L102/48 07/04/2004Google Scholar
  30. Directive 2006/17/EC of 8th February 2006 implementing Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards certain technical requirements for donation, procurement and testing of human tissues and cells. Official Journal of the European Union, L38/40 09/02/2006Google Scholar
  31. Directive 2006/86/EC of the 24th October 2006 implementing Directive 2004/23/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards traceability requirements, notification of serious adverse reactions and events and certain technical requirements for the coding, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells. Official Journal of the European Union, L294/32 25/10/2006Google Scholar
  32. Donmez A, Tombuloglu M, Gungor A, Soyer N, Saydam G, Cagirgan S (2007) Clinical side effects during peripheral blood progenitor cell infusion. Transfus Apher Sci 36(1):95–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dorozynski A (1999) Former French ministers on trial over blood. BMJ 318:76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferrucci PF, Martinoni A, Cocorocchio E, Civelli M, Cinieri S, Cardinale D, Peccatori F, Lamantia G, Agazzi A, Corsini C, Tealdo F, Fiorentini C, Cipolla C, Fermond J, Arnutt B, Mounier N, Ertant M, Lotz J, Galacier L, Raffoux E, Bentuman N, Marolleau J, Larghero J (2000) Evaluation of acute toxicities associated with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell reinfusion in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy. Bone Marrow Transplant 25(2):173–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fois E, Desmartin M, Benhamida S, Xavier F, Vanneaux V, Rea D, Fermond J, Arnutt J, Mounier N, Ertant M, Lotz J, Galacier L, Raffoux E, Bentuman N, Marolleau J, Larghero J (2007) Recovery, viability and clinical toxicity of thawed and washed haematopoietic progenitor cells: analysis of 952 autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantations. Bone Marrow Transplant 40(9):831–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Galmes A, Besalduch J, Bargay J, Novo A, Morey M, Guerra JM et al (1999) Long-term storage at −80°C of hematopoietic progenitor cells with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide as the sole cryoprotectant. Transfusion 39(1):70–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galmes A, Gutierrez A, Sampol A, Canaro M, Morey M, Iglesias J et al (2007) Long-term hematological reconstitution and clinical evaluation of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after cryopreservation of cells with 5 and 10% dimethylsulfoxide at −80°C in a mechanical freezer. Haematologica 92(7):986–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Golubic B, Bojanic I (2010) Vigilance of stem cell collection and reinfusion in university hospital centre Zagreb: 12th international haemovigilance seminar. Blood Transfus 8(Suppl 1):4–5Google Scholar
  39. Gomez S, Nagler A, Naparstek E, Slavin S (1991) Transient elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase following autologous bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 7(6):487–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components, 15th Edition Council of Europe, (2009).
  41. Halle P, Tournilhac O, Knopinska-Posluszny W, Kanold J, Gembara P, Boiret N, Rapatel C, Berger H, Travade P, Augielski S, Bouhomme J, Demeocq F (2001) Uncontrolled-rate freezing and storage at −80°C, with only 3.5% DMSO in cryoprotective solution for 109 autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantations. Transfusion 41(5):667–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hequet O, Dumontet C, El Jaafari-Corbin A, Salles G, Espinouse D, Arnaud P, Thieblemont C, Bouafia F, Coiffer B (2002) Epileptic seizures after autologous peripheral blood progenitor infusion in a patient treated with high-dose chemotherapy for myeloma. Bone Marrow Transplant 29(6):544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Higman MA, Port JD, Beauchamp NJ Jr, Chen AR (2000) Reversible leukoencephalopathy associated with re-infusion of DMSO preserved stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 26(7):797–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoyt R, Szer J, Grigg A (2000) Neurological events associated with the infusion of cryopreserved bone marrow and/or peripheral blood progenitor cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 25(12):1285–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hunt CJ, Pegg DE, Armitage SE (2006) Optimising cryopreservation protocols for haematopoietic progenitor cells: a methodological approach for umbilical cord blood. Cryo Lett 27(2):73–86Google Scholar
  46. Junior AM, Arrais CA, Saboya R, Velasques RD, Junqueira PL, Dulley FL (2008) Neurotoxicity associated with dimethylsulfoxide-preserved hematopoietic progenitor cell infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 41(1):95–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kessinger A, Schmit-Pokorny K, Smith D, Armitage J (1990) Cryopreservation and infusion of autologous peripheral blood stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 5(Suppl 1):25–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Keung YK, Lau S, Elkayam U, Chen SC, Douer D (1994) Cardiac arrhythmia after infusion of cryopreserved stem cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 14(3):363–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Koliakos G, Alamdari DH, Tsagias N, Kouzi-Koliakos K, Michaloudi E, Karagiannis V (2007) A novel high-yield volume-reduction method for the cryopreservation of UC blood units. Cytotherapy 9(7):654–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Konuma T, Ooi J, Takahashi S, Tomonari A, Tsukada N, Kobayashi T, Sato A, Kato S, Kasahara S, Elihara Y, Nagamura-Inoue T, Tsuji K, Tojo A, Asano S (2008) Cardiovascular toxicity of cryopreserved cord blood cell infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 41(10):861–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lakota J, Fuchsberger P (1996) Autologous stem cell transplantation with stem cells preserved in the presence of 4.5 and 2.2% DMSO. Bone Marrow Transplant 18(1):262–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Laroche V, McKenna DH, Moroff G, Schierman T, Kadidlo D, McCullough J (2005) Cell loss and recovery in umbilical cord blood processing: a comparison of post thaw and post wash samples. Transfusion 45(12):1909–1916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lemarie C, Calmels B, Malenfant C, Arneodo V, Blaise D, Viret F et al (2005) Clinical experience with the delivery of thawed and washed autologous blood cells, with an automated closed fluid management device: cytomate. Transfusion 45(5):737–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liseth K, Abrahamsen JF, Bjorsvik S, Grottebo K, Bruserud O (2005) The viability of cryopreserved PBPC depends on the DMSO concentration and the concentration of nucleated cells in the graft. Cytotherapy 7(4):328–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lopez-Jimenez J, Cervero C, Murioz A, Hernandez-Madrid A, Fernandez J, Garcia J, Moro C, Maldonado M, Perez J, Otheo E (1994) Cardiovascular toxicities related to the infusion of cryopreserved graft: result of a controlled study. Bone Marrow Transplant 13:789–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Madkaikar M, Gupta M, Ghosh K, Swaminathan S, Sonawane L, Mohanty D (2007) Optimising methods of red cell sedimentation from cord blood to maximise nucleated cell recovery prior to cryopreservation. Br J Biomed Sci 64(4):157–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Mandanas RA, Kratochvil K, Garner T, Selby GB (1999) Formation of fibrin clots in cryopreserved stem cell bags during thawing procedure: lack of impact on engraftment in autologous stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 23(3):303–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martino M, Morabito F, Messina G, Irrera G, Pucci G, Iacopino P (1996) Fractionated infusions of cryopreserved stem cells may prevent DMSO-induced major cardiac complications in graft recipients. Haematologica 81(1):59–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Milone G, Mercurio S, Strano A, Leotta S, Pinto V, Battiato K, Coppoletta S, Murgano P, Farsaci B, Privitera A, Giustolisi R (2007) Adverse events after infusions of cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells depend on non-mononuclear cells in the infused suspension and patient age. Cytotherapy 9(4):348–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miniero R, Vai S, Giacchino M, Giubellino C, Madon E (1992) Severe respiratory depression after autologous bone marrow infusion. Haematologica 77(1):98–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mueller LP, Theurich S, Christopeit M, Grothe W, Muetherig A, Weber T, Guenther S, Behre G (2007) Neurotoxicity upon infusion of dimethylsulfoxide-cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells in patients with and without pre-existing cerebral disease. Eur J Haematol 78(6):527–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Okamoto Y, Takaue Y, Saito S, Shimizu T, Suzue T, Abe T, Sato J, Hirao A, Watanabe T, Kawano Y, Kurado Y (1993) Toxicities associated with cryopreserved, thawed peripheral blood stem cell autografts in children with active cancer. Transfusion 33(7):578–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Online document 1.
  64. Online document 2. Dimethyl Sulfoxide USP, PhEur in approved pharmaceutical products and medical devicesGoogle Scholar
  65. Online document 3. National classification index: common toxicity criteria
  66. Online document 5. Eurocet registry.
  67. Online document 6. Substances of human origin project.
  68. Otrock Z, Beydoun A, Barada WM, Masroujeh R, Hourani R, Bazarbachi A (2008) Transient global amnesia associated with the infusion of DMSO-cryopreserved autologous peripheral blood stem cells. Haematologi 93(3):36–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ozdemir E, Akgedik K, Akdogan S, Kansu E (2008) The lollipop with strawberry aroma may be promising in reduction of infusion-related nausea and vomiting during the infusion of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 14(12):1425–1428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perseghin P, Balduzzi A, Bonanomi S, Dassi M, Buscemi F, Longoni D, Rovelli A, Uderzo C (2000) Infusion-related side-effects in children undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 26(1):116–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Petropoulou AD, Bellochine R, Norol F, Marie JP, Rio B (2007) Coronary artery spasm after infusion of cryopreserved cord blood cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 40(4):397–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rapoport AP, Rowe JM, Packman CH, Ginsberg SJ (1991) Cardiac arrest after autologous marrow infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 7(5):401–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Regulation 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and the Council of 13 November 2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004Google Scholar
  74. Richter E, Eichler H, Raske D, Leveringhaus A, Zieger W, Kerowgan M et al (1998) Five percent Me2SO is sufficient to preserve stem cells derived from cord blood. Bone Marrow Transplant 22(Suppl 1):S16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosskopf K et al (1999) Clots in cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell concentrates at time of thawing: possible causes and prophylactic strategies. Bone Marrow Transplant 40:1063–1067Google Scholar
  76. Rowley SD, Anderson GL (1993) Effect of DMSO exposure without cryopreservation on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Bone Marrow Transplant 11(5):389–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rowley SD, MacLeod B, Heimfeld S, Holmberg L, Besinger W (1999a) Severe central nervous system toxicity associated with the infusion of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell components. Cytotherapy 1:311–317Google Scholar
  78. Rowley SD, Feng Z, Yadock D, Holmberg L, MacLeod B, Heimfeld S (1999b) Post-thaw removal of DMSO does not completely abrogate infusion toxicity or the need for pre-infusion histamine blockade. Cytotherapy 1(6):439–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ruiz-Delgado G, Mancia-Guerra C, Tamez-Gomez E, Rodríguez-Romo LN, López-Otero A, Hernández-Arizpe A, Gómez-Almaguer D, Ruiz-Argüelles GJ (2009) Dimethyl sulfoxide-induced toxicity in cord blood stem cell transplantation: report of three cases and review of the literature. Acta Haematol 122:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schlegel P, Wolfi M, Schick J, Winkler B, Eyrich M (2009) Transient loss of conscientiousness in pediatric recipients of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells independent of morphine co-medication. Haematologica 94(10):1473–1475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stroncek DF, Fautsch SK, Lasky LC, Hurd DD, Ramsay NK, McCullough J (1991) Adverse reactions in patients transfused with cryopreserved marrow. Transfusion 31(6):521–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Styler M, Topolsky D, Crilley P, Covelsky V, Bryan R, Brodsky I (1992) Transient high grade heart block following autologous bone marrow infusion. Bone Marrow Transplant 10:435–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Syme R, Bewick M, Stewart D, Porter K, Chadderton T, Gluck S (2004) The role of depletion of dimethyl sulfoxide before autografting: on hematologic recovery, side effects and toxicity. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 10(2):135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Windrum P, Morris TC (2003) Severe neurotoxicity because of dimethyl sulphoxide following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 31(4):315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Windrum P, Morris TC, Drake MB, Niederwieser D, Ruutu T (2005) Variation in dimethyl sulfoxide use in stem cell transplantation: a survey of EBMT centres. Bone Marrow Transplant 36(7):601–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yellowlees P, Greenfield C, McIntyre N (1980) Dimethylsulphoxide-induced toxicity. Lancet 2(8202):1004–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zambelli A, Poggi G, Da PG, Pedrazzoli P, Cuomo A, Miotti D et al (1998) Clinical toxicity of cryopreserved circulating progenitor cells infusion. Anticancer Res 18(6B):4705–4708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Zenhausern R, Tobler A, Leoncini L, Hess OM, Ferrari P (2000) Fatal cardiac arrhythmia after infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide-cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells in a patient with severe primary cardiac amyloidosis and end-stage renal failure. Ann Hematol 79(9):523–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael A. Cox
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jens Kastrup
    • 2
  • Mikulas Hrubiško
    • 3
  1. 1.Danish Medicines AgencyCopenhagen SDenmark
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyRigshospital Copenhagen University HospitalCopenhagen ØDenmark
  3. 3.Slovak Medical UniversityBratislavaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations