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Cell and Tissue Banking

, 9:195 | Cite as

Assessment of factors that confound MRI and neuropathological correlation of human postmortem brain tissue

  • Lea T. Grinberg
  • Edson AmaroJr.
  • Stefan Teipel
  • Denis Dionizio dos Santos
  • Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci
  • Renata E. P. Leite
  • Celia Regina Camargo
  • Jaqueline Alba Gonçalves
  • Ariadne Gonçalves Sanches
  • Miriam Santana
  • Renata E. L. Ferretti
  • Wilson Jacob-Filho
  • Ricardo Nitrini
  • Helmut Heinsen
  • Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group
Article

Abstract

In spite of considerable technical advance in MRI techniques, the optical resolution of these methods are still limited. Consequently, the delineation of cytoarchitectonic fields based on probabilistic maps and brain volume changes, as well as small-scale changes seen in MRI scans need to be verified by neuronanatomical/neuropathological diagnostic tools. To attend the current interdisciplinary needs of the scientific community, brain banks have to broaden their scope in order to provide high quality tissue suitable for neuroimaging- neuropathology/anatomy correlation studies. The Brain Bank of the Brazilian Aging Brain Research Group (BBBABSG) of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School (USPMS) collaborates with researchers interested in neuroimaging-neuropathological correlation studies providing brains submitted to postmortem MRI in-situ. In this paper we describe and discuss the parameters established by the BBBABSG to select and to handle brains for fine-scale neuroimaging-neuropathological correlation studies, and to exclude inappropriate/unsuitable autopsy brains. We tried to assess the impact of the postmortem time and storage of the corpse on the quality of the MRI scans and to establish fixation protocols that are the most appropriate to these correlation studies. After investigation of a total of 36 brains, postmortem interval and low body temperature proved to be the main factors determining the quality of routine MRI protocols. Perfusion fixation of the brains after autopsy by mannitol 20% followed by formalin 20% was the best method for preserving the original brain shape and volume, and for allowing further routine and immunohistochemical staining. Taken to together, these parameters offer a methodological progress in screening and processing of human postmortem tissue in order to guarantee high quality material for unbiased correlation studies and to avoid expenditures by post-imaging analyses and histological processing of brain tissue.

Keywords

Brain Banking Postmortem MRI Neuropathology Confounder 

Abbreviations

AAF

Acetic acid-alcohol-formaldehyde

BBBABSG

Brain Bank of the Brazilian Aging Brain Research Group

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

FLAIR

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

MR

Magnetic resonance

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PET

Positron emission tomography

PMI

Postmortem interval

3D

Tridimensional

USMS

University of Sao Paulo Medical School

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the brain donors and their families, the autopsy service and Hospital das Clinicas staff and the students from the Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group. We are grateful to Keely Smith for critical review of the English. Support for this work was provided by Albert Einstein Research and Education Institute and Coordenadoria de Apoio ao Pessoal de Nivel Superior—CAPES Scholarship (to LTG, REPL, ATLA) and FAPESP (grant 06/55318-1). This study was conducted in collaboration with the Department of Radiology and Autopsy Service—University of Sao Paulo Medical School, the Laboratory of Morphological Brain Research of the Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, and The Alzheimer Memorial Center Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lea T. Grinberg
    • 1
    • 2
  • Edson AmaroJr.
    • 3
  • Stefan Teipel
    • 4
  • Denis Dionizio dos Santos
    • 1
  • Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci
    • 1
  • Renata E. P. Leite
    • 1
  • Celia Regina Camargo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jaqueline Alba Gonçalves
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ariadne Gonçalves Sanches
    • 5
  • Miriam Santana
    • 1
  • Renata E. L. Ferretti
    • 1
    • 6
  • Wilson Jacob-Filho
    • 6
  • Ricardo Nitrini
    • 7
  • Helmut Heinsen
    • 8
  • Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert EinsteinSao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSao PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity RostockRostockGermany
  5. 5.Universidade Federal de São Paulo/UNIFESPSao PauloBrazil
  6. 6.Division of GeriatricsUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSao PauloBrazil
  7. 7.Department of NeurologyUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSao PauloBrazil
  8. 8.Morphological Brain Research Unit, Psychiatric ClinicUniversity WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  9. 9.São PauloBrazil

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