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Psychometric Properties of a Comprehensive Parenting Practice Measure for Parents of Adolescents


Many measures exist that assess parenting skills and practices. Few comprehensive measures for parents of adolescents (13–17 years) exist. The aim of the current study was to develop a comprehensive assessment measure of parenting practices based on items from existing measures. Research and clinical settings can benefit from the advancement of a valid and more inclusive measure of parenting to assess youth behavior and functioning. This study utilized a sample that included 387 caregivers and youth (mean age of youth = 13.6, SD = .59) from a longitudinal study examining contextual influences on youths’ substance use initiation. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on 12 parent-report measures of parenting. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on a second sample, which included peers (N = 362, mean age of peers = 13.6, SD = 1.09) and peers’ caregivers of the youth included in the original sample. The EFA results indicated a three-factor solution (i.e., parental knowledge and affective relationships, parental control, parental communication and involvement), which was supported in the CFA. The final measure demonstrated strong internal consistency and satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity. This study supported the sound psychometrical features of the Parenting Practice Measure (PPM), a comprehensive measure of parenting quality for adolescent samples. The PPM can serve as a tool for clinicians to design more targeted treatment plans and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments when working with parents with children in the early teenage years.

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We wish to acknowledge Dr. Craig Colder, Principal Investigator, for access to the Adolescent and Family Development Project dataset, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.


This manuscript was supported in part by a Florida International University Graduate School Dissertation Year Fellowship and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (K08 AA023290 to Elisa Trucco) of the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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Correspondence to Elisa M. Trucco.

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Parenting Practice Measure (PPM)


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Ladis, B., Trucco, E.M., Huang, H. et al. Psychometric Properties of a Comprehensive Parenting Practice Measure for Parents of Adolescents. Child Adolesc Soc Work J 37, 49–72 (2020).

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  • Parenting practice measure
  • Adolescents
  • Parental knowledge
  • Parental control
  • Parental involvement