Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 1–21

Results of an Alcohol Prevention Program with Urban American Indian Youth



In comparing alcohol use among American Indian and non-Indian youth, the age at first involvement with alcohol is younger for Indians, the frequency and amount of drinking are greater, and the negative consequences are more common. This article presents the results of an innovative alcohol prevention program for urban Indian youth, blending mainstream prevention approaches with culturally appropriate intervention. A quasi-experimental treatment/non-equivalent control group research design was used to evaluate the Seventh Generation Program, comparing scores over time on measures assessing alcohol beliefs as well as decision-making, social support, locus of control, self-concept, depression, and ethnic identity. Results of repeated measures analysis revealed significant effects for treatment in the areas of alcohol beliefs, social support, locus of control and depression.


  1. Bandura A., (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change Psychological Review 84(2):191–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beauvais F., (1996) Trends in drug use among American Indian students and dropout, 1975 to 1994 American Journal of Public Health 86(11):1594–1598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beauvais F., (1998) American Indians and alcohol Alcohol Health and Research World 22(4):253–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beauvais F., Oetting E. R., Edwards R. W., (1985) Trends in drug use of Indian adolescents living on reservations: 1975–1983 American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 11(3&4):209–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Botvin G. J., Baker E., Botvin E. M., Filazzola A. D., Millman R. B., (1985) Alcohol abuse prevention through the development of personal and social competence: A pilot study Journal of Studies on Alcohol 45:550–552Google Scholar
  6. Botvin G. J., (1995). Drug abuse prevention in school settings. In: Botvin G., Schinke S., Orlandi M., (eds) Drug abuse prevention with multiethnic youth. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  7. Dorpat N., (1994) PRIDE: Substance abuse education/intervention program American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: Journal of the National Center 4: 122–133Google Scholar
  8. Dukes R. L., Stein J. A., Ullman J. B., (1997) Long-term impact of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.): Results of a 6-year follow-up Evaluation Review 21(4):483–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Forslund M. A., Cranston V. A., (1975) A self-report comparison of Indian and Anglo delinquency in Wyoming Criminology 12(2):193–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Forslund M. A., Meyers R. E., (1974) Delinquency among Wind River Indian reservation youth Criminology 12(1):97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guyette S. (1982) Selected characteristics of American Indian substance abusers International Journal on the Addictions 17(6):1001–1014Google Scholar
  12. Hughes S. P., Dodder R. A. (1984) Alcohol consumption patterns among American Indians and White college students Journal of Studies on Alcohol 45(5):433–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Jessor R., Jessor S. J. (1975) Adolescent development and the onset of drinking: A longitudinal study Journal of Studies on Alcohol 36 (1):27–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kendall P. C., (2000). Guiding theory for therapy with children and adolescents. In: Kendall P. C., (eds) Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures, 2nd Ed., Guilford Press, New York, pp. 3–23Google Scholar
  15. Kulis S., Napoli M., Marsiglia F. F., (2002) Ethnic pride, biculturalism, and drug use norms of urban American Indian adolescents Social Work Research 26(2):101–112Google Scholar
  16. Kovacs M., (1992). Children’s Depression Inventory: CDI Manual. Multi-Health Systems, Inc., North Tonawanda, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. LaFromboise T. D., Rowe W., (1983). Skills training for bicultural competence: Rationale and application Journal of Counseling Psychology 30(4):589–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loveland-Cherry C. J., Ross L. T., Kaufman S. R., (1999) Effects of a home-based family intervention on adolescent alcohol use and misuse Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement No. 3:94–102Google Scholar
  19. Mail P. D., Johnson S., (1993) Boozing, sniffing, and toking: An overview of the past, present, and future of substance use by American Indians American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research 5(2):1–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. May P. A., Moran J. R., (1995) Prevention of alcohol misuse: A review of health promotion efforts among American Indians American Journal of Health Promotion 9(4):288–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Moran J. R., Fleming C., Somervell P., Manson S. M. (1999). Measuring ethnic identity among American Indian adolescents Journal of Adolescent Research 14:405–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moran J. R., Reaman J. (2002). Critical issues for substance abuse prevention programs targeting American Indian youth: What works Journal of Primary Prevention 22(2):201–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moran, J. R. (2002) Urban Indians and alcohol problems: Research findings on alcohol use, treatment, prevention and related issues. In P. Mail, S. Heurtin-Roberts, S. Martin, & J. Howard (Eds.), Alcohol use among American Indians and Alaska Natives: multiple perspectives on a complex problem. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Research Monograph No. 37, 265–292Google Scholar
  24. Norwicki S., Strickland B. R. (1973) A locus of control scale for children Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology 40:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oetting, E. R., & Beauvais, F. (1989). Epidemiology and correlates of alcohol use among Indian adolescents living on reservations. In: Alcohol use among U.S. Ethnic Minorities, NIAAA research monograph no. 18, Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Public Health Service. 239–267Google Scholar
  26. Oetting E. R., Beauvais F., (1990) Orthogonal cultural identification theory: The cultural identification of minority adolescents International Journal of the Addictions 25(5A and 6A):655–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Oetting E. R., Beauvais F., Edwards R. W., (1988). Alcohol and Indian Youth: Social and psychological correlates and prevention Journal of Drug Issues 18:87–101Google Scholar
  28. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (1988). Beliefs about alcohol use. In Program Evaluation Handbook: Alcohol Abuse Education, (140–143), Los Angeles, California, IXO Assessment AssociatesGoogle Scholar
  29. Petoskey, E. L., Van Stelle, K. R., & De Jong, J. A. (1998). Prevention through empowerment in a Native American community. In J. Valentine, J. De Jong, & N. Kennedy (Eds.), Substance abuse prevention in multicultural communities. New York: The Haworth Press, IncGoogle Scholar
  30. Phinney J. S., (1992) The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups Journal of Adolescent Research 7:156–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Piers E., (1984) Piers-Harris children’s self-concept scale. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  32. Plunkett M., Mitchell C. M., (2000) Substance use rates among American Indian adolescents: Regional comparisons with monitoring the future high school seniors Journal of Drug Issues 30(3):575–591Google Scholar
  33. Schinke S. P., (1984). Preventing teenage pregnancy. In: Hersen M., Eisler R. M., Miller P. M., (eds) Progress in behavior modification. Academic, New York, pp 31–63Google Scholar
  34. Schinke S. P., Gilchrist L., (1984) Preventing cigarette smoking with youth Journal of Primary Prevention 5:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schinke S. P., Orlandi M. A., Botvin G. J., Gilchrist L., Trimble J. E., Locklear V. S., (1988) Preventing substance abuse among American Indian adolescents: A bicultural competence skills approach Journal of Counseling Psychology 35(1):87–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Schinke S. P., Tepavac L., Cole K. C. (2000). Preventing substance use among Native American youth: Three-year results Addictive Behaviors 25:387–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Seitz V., (1981) Intervention and sleeper effects Developmental Review 1(4):361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Snipp C. M., (1996). The size and distribution of the American Indian population: Fertility, mortality, migration, and residence. In: Sandefur Gary D., Rindfuss Ronald R., Cohen Barney, (eds) Changing numbers, changing needs: American Indian demography and public health. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 17–52Google Scholar
  39. St. Pierre T. L., Kaltreider D. L., Mark M. H., Aikin K. J., (1992). Drug prevention in a community setting: A longitudinal study of the effectiveness of a three-year primary prevention program in Boys and Girls clubs across the nation American Journal of Community Psychology 20:673–706Google Scholar
  40. Voices of Indian Teens (1992). Designing, refining and implementing longitudinal research with American Indian communities: The voices of Indian teens project. Unpublished manuscript, National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, COGoogle Scholar
  41. Weiss B., Catron T., Harris V., (2000) A 2-year follow-up of the effectiveness of traditional child psychotherapy Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68(6):1094–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Winfree L. T., Griffiths C. T., (1983) Youth at risk: Marijuana use among Native American and Caucasian youths International Journal on the Addictions 18:53–70Google Scholar
  43. Zimet G., Dahlem S., Farley G., (1988) The multidimensional scale of perceived social support Journal of Personality Assessment 52:30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of DenverDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations