Inhibition of Phosphoglycerate Mutase 5 Reduces Necroptosis in Rat Hearts Following Ischemia/Reperfusion Through Suppression of Dynamin-Related Protein 1

  • Lang She
  • Hua Tu
  • Yin-Zhuang Zhang
  • Li-Jing Tang
  • Nian-Sheng Li
  • Qi-Lin Ma
  • Bin Liu
  • Qingjie Li
  • Xiu-Ju LuoEmail author
  • Jun PengEmail author



Necroptosis is an important form of cell death following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) functions as the convergent point for multiple necrosis pathways. This study aims to investigate whether inhibition of PGAM5 could reduce I/R-induced myocardial necroptosis and the underlying mechanisms.


The SD rat hearts (or H9c2 cells) were subjected to 1-h ischemia (or 10-h hypoxia) plus 3-h reperfusion (or 4-h reoxygenation) to establish the I/R (or H/R) injury model. The myocardial injury was assessed by the methods of biochemistry, H&E (hematoxylin and eosin), and PI/DAPI (propidium iodide/4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, respectively. Drug interventions or gene knockdown was used to verify the role of PGAM5 in I/R (or H/R)-induced myocardial necroptosis and possible mechanisms.


The I/R-treated heart showed the injuries (increase in infarct size and creatine kinase release), upregulation of PGAM5, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), p-Drp1-S616, and necroptosis-relevant proteins (RIPK1/RIPK3, receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/3; MLKL, mixed lineage kinase domain-like); these phenomena were attenuated by inhibition of PGAM5 or RIPK1. In H9c2 cells, H/R treatment elevated the levels of PGAM5, RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL, Drp1, and p-Drp1-S616 and induced mitochondrial dysfunctions (elevation in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS level) and cellular necrosis (increase in LDH release and the ratio of PI+/DAPI+ cells); these effects were blocked by inhibition or knockdown of PGAM5.


Inhibition of PGAM5 can reduce necroptosis in I/R-treated rat hearts through suppression of Drp1; there is a positive feedback between RIPK1 and PGAM5, and PGAM5 might serve as a novel therapeutic target for prevention of myocardial I/R injury.


Ischemia/reperfusion Necroptosis Phosphoglycolic acid Phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5) Dynamin-related protein 1(DRP1) 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81872873 to Jun Peng; No. 81573430 to Xiu-Ju Luo; No. 81703516 to Bin Liu).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Supplementary material

10557_2018_6848_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.1 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1144 kb)


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical SciencesCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Xiangya HospitalCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.Department of Laboratory Medicine, Xiangya Third HospitalCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  4. 4.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical SciencesCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  5. 5.Department of Internal MedicineThe University of Texas Medical Branch at GalvestonGalvestonUSA

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