Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 101–108 | Cite as

Future Directions to Establish Lipoprotein(a) as a Treatment for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

  • Evan A. Stein
  • Frederick Raal


In both epidemiologic and genetic studies, increased levels of Lp(a) have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases as well as aortic stenosis. However, until recently, it has been difficult to lower levels of Lp(a). Diet and lifestyle have little effect on plasma levels of Lp(a) which are mainly genetically determined. Emerging therapeutic agents which have recently become available, or which are undergoing clinical trials, can significantly lower Lp(a) levels. Studies with these agents will hopefully be able to provide more direct information whether reductions in Lp(a) will reduce CVD events independently of reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels.


Lipoprotein(a) PCSK9 inhibitors Niacin Statins CETP inhibitors 


Compliance with Ethical Standards


Dr. Stein has received consulting fees from Amgen, Regeneron, Sanofi, Genentech/Roche, CymaBay, Gemphire, Catabasis, CVS/Caremark and BMS.

Dr. Raal has received reimbursement for conducting clinical trials from Amgen and Sanofi; modest speaker fees from AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Merck; honoraria from AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Merck, Amgen, and Sanofi; and consultant/advisory board fees from AstraZeneca, Pfizer, and Merck.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Carbohydrate & Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

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