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Oxidized LDL, LOX-1 and Atherosclerosis

Article

Abstract

An elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol constitutes a major risk factor for genesis of atherosclerosis. Ox-LDL plays a more important role in the genesis and progression of atherosclerosis than the native LDL. Ox-LDL leads to endothelial dysfunction leading to expression of adhesion molecules and recruitment of monocyte in subendothelial space. Ox-LDL is taken up by macrophages via scavenger receptors, such as SR-A1, SR-A2 and LOX-1. Lately, LOX-1, a type II membrane protein receptor of ox-LDL, has gained much importance in relation to effects of ox-LDL on endothelial biology. Endothelial cells primarily express LOX-1 as receptor for ox-LDL and ox-LDL has been shown to upregulate expression of LOX-1. In addition, ox-LDL promotes the growth and migration of smooth muscle cells, monocytes/macrophages and fibroblasts. In this review we discuss the role of ox-LDL and LOX-1 in genesis and progression of atherosclerosis.

Key words

Ox-LDL LOX-1 Oxidative stress Atherosclerosis 

Abbreviations

Ox-LDL

Oxidized low density lipoprotein

LOX-1

Lectin-like low density lipoprotein receptor

NO

Nitric oxide

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthetase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

ET-1

Endothelin-1

RAGE

Receptor for advanced glycation end products

BH4

Tetrahydrobiopterin

SR-A1

Scavenger receptor A1

SR-A2

Scavenger receptor A2

AGE

Advanced glycation end product

AT1R

Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor

Ang II

Angiotensin II

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydogenase

MAPK

Mitogen activated protein kinases

NFκB

Nuclear factor kappa beta

ETB

Endothelin receptor B

HUVEC

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

LOX-1 KO mice

Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein knockout mice

LDLR KO mice

Low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

AP1

Activating protein −1

dil

1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate

NOX-4

NADPH oxidase-4

TGF-β1

Transforming growth factor beta 1

APO E KO mice

Apolipoprotein E knockout mice

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular DivisionUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.VA Medical CenterLittle RockUSA

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