Oxidized LDL, LOX-1 and Atherosclerosis



An elevated level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol constitutes a major risk factor for genesis of atherosclerosis. Ox-LDL plays a more important role in the genesis and progression of atherosclerosis than the native LDL. Ox-LDL leads to endothelial dysfunction leading to expression of adhesion molecules and recruitment of monocyte in subendothelial space. Ox-LDL is taken up by macrophages via scavenger receptors, such as SR-A1, SR-A2 and LOX-1. Lately, LOX-1, a type II membrane protein receptor of ox-LDL, has gained much importance in relation to effects of ox-LDL on endothelial biology. Endothelial cells primarily express LOX-1 as receptor for ox-LDL and ox-LDL has been shown to upregulate expression of LOX-1. In addition, ox-LDL promotes the growth and migration of smooth muscle cells, monocytes/macrophages and fibroblasts. In this review we discuss the role of ox-LDL and LOX-1 in genesis and progression of atherosclerosis.

Key words

Ox-LDL LOX-1 Oxidative stress Atherosclerosis 



Oxidized low density lipoprotein


Lectin-like low density lipoprotein receptor


Nitric oxide


Endothelial nitric oxide synthetase


Superoxide dismutase




Receptor for advanced glycation end products




Scavenger receptor A1


Scavenger receptor A2


Advanced glycation end product


Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor

Ang II

Angiotensin II


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydogenase


Mitogen activated protein kinases


Nuclear factor kappa beta


Endothelin receptor B


Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

LOX-1 KO mice

Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein knockout mice

LDLR KO mice

Low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice


Matrix metalloproteinase


Activating protein −1


1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate


NADPH oxidase-4


Transforming growth factor beta 1

APO E KO mice

Apolipoprotein E knockout mice


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiovascular DivisionUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.VA Medical CenterLittle RockUSA

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