Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 719–731 | Cite as

From genomics to metabolomics: emerging metastatic biomarkers in osteosarcoma

  • Dylan C. Dean
  • Shen Shen
  • Francis J. Hornicek
  • Zhenfeng DuanEmail author


Although the investigation into biomarkers specific for pulmonary metastasis within osteosarcoma (OS) has recently expanded, their usage within the clinic remains sparse. The current screening protocol after any OS diagnosis includes a chest CT scan; however, metastatic lung nodules frequently go undetected and remain the primary cause of death in OS. Recently, screening technologies such as liquid biopsy and next-generation sequencing have revealed a promising array of biomarkers with predictive and diagnostic value for the pulmonary metastasis associated with OS. These biomarkers draw from genomics, transcriptomics, epigenetics, and metabolomics. When assessed in concert, their utility is most promising as OS is a highly heterogeneous cancer. Accordingly, there has been an expansion of clinical trials not only aimed at further demonstrating the significance of these individual biomarkers but to also reveal which therapies resolve the pulmonary metastasis once detected. This review will focus on the recently discovered and novel metastatic biomarkers within OS, their molecular and cellular mechanisms, the expansion of humanized OS mouse models amenable to their testing, and the associated clinical trials aimed at managing the metastatic phase of OS.


Osteosarcoma Metastasis Metabolomics ncRNA Clinical trial 



This work was supported, in part, by the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at UCLA. Dr. Duan is supported, in part, through a Grant from Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA), a Grant from National Cancer Institute (NCI)/National Institutes of Health (NIH), UO1, CA151452-01.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dylan C. Dean
    • 1
  • Shen Shen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francis J. Hornicek
    • 1
  • Zhenfeng Duan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sarcoma Biology LaboratoryDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Precision Medicine CenterThe First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina

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