Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 33, Issue 2–3, pp 673–693 | Cite as

Emerging technology: applications of Raman spectroscopy for prostate cancer

  • Rachel E. Kast
  • Stephanie C. Tucker
  • Kevin Killian
  • Micaela Trexler
  • Kenneth V. Honn
  • Gregory W. AunerEmail author


There is a need in prostate cancer diagnostics and research for a label-free imaging methodology that is nondestructive, rapid, objective, and uninfluenced by water. Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature, which can be scaled from micron-level regions of interest in cells to macroscopic areas of tissue. It can be used for applications ranging from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics to basic science laboratory testing. This work describes the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy and complementary techniques including surface enhanced Raman scattering, resonance Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, stimulated Raman scattering, and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy. Clinical applications of Raman spectroscopy to prostate cancer will be discussed, including screening, biopsy, margin assessment, and monitoring of treatment efficacy. Laboratory applications including cell identification, culture monitoring, therapeutics development, and live imaging of cellular processes are discussed. Potential future avenues of research are described, with emphasis on multiplexing Raman spectroscopy with other modalities.


Raman spectroscopy Prostate cancer Diagnostics Biomarkers Therapeutics 



This work was funded, in part by the Strauss TEAMS Endowed Chair, the Wayne State University Department of Surgery, and the Henry Ford Health System.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Wilt, T. J., et al. (2008). Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and harms of treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(6), 435–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jemal, A., et al. (2006). Cancer statistics, 2006. CA: Cancer Journal Clinicians, 56(2), 106–130.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zeliadt, S. B., et al. (2006). Why do men choose one treatment over another? Cancer, 106(9), 1865–1874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smekal, A. (1923). Zur Quantentheorie der Dispersion. Naturwissenschaften, 11(43), 873–875.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Raman, C. V. (1928). A new radiation. Indian Journal of Physics, 2, 387–398.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Raman, C. V., & Krishnan, K. S. (1928). A new type of secondary radiation. Nature, 121, 501.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Strutt, J. (1871). On the light from the sky, its polarization and colour. Philosophical Magazine, 41(4), 107–120. 274–279.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Movasaghi, Z., Rehman, S., & Rehman, I. U. (2007). Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 42(5), 493–541.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ager, J., et al. (2005). Deep-ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of aging on human cortical bone. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10(3), 034012–0340128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moskovits, M. (2005). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 36(6–7), 485–496.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fleischmann, M., Hendra, P. J., & McQuillan, A. J. (1974). Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode. Chemical Physics Letters, 26(2), 163–166.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McFarland, A. D., et al. (2005). Wavelength-scanned surface-enhanced Raman excitation spectroscopy. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, 109(22), 11279–11285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clark, H. A., et al. (1998). Subcellular optochemical nanobiosensors: probes encapsulated by biologically localised embedding (PEBBLEs). Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 51(1), 12–16.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang, X., et al. (2008). Characterization of cellular chemical dynamics using combined microfluidic and Raman techniques. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 390(3), 833–840.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kneipp, K., et al. (2002). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in single living cells using gold nanoparticles. Applied Spectroscopy, 56(2), 150–154.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kneipp, K., Kneipp, H., & Kneipp, J. (2006). Surface-enhanced Raman scattering in local optical fields of silver and gold nanoaggregates from single-molecule Raman spectroscopy to ultrasensitive probing in live cells. Accounts of Chemical Research, 39(7), 443–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kneipp, J., et al. (2006). In vivo molecular probing of cellular compartments with gold nanoparticles and nanoaggregates. Nano Letters, 6(10), 2225–2231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang, Z., et al. (2011). Gold aggregates- and quantum dots- embedded nanospheres: switchable dual-mode image probes for living cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21(12), 4307–4313.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zavaleta, C. L., et al. (2009). Multiplexed imaging of surface enhanced Raman scattering nanotags in living mice using noninvasive Raman spectroscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(32), 13511–13516.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jun, B.-H., et al. (2009). Protein separation and identification using magnetic beads encoded with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Analytical Biochemistry, 391(1), 24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Olofsson, J., et al. (2002). Picosecond Kerr-gated time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of the [Ru (phen) < sub > 2</sub > dppz] < sup > 2 + </sup > interaction with DNA. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 91(1), 286–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Palonpon, A. F., Sodeoka, M., & Fujita, K. (2013). Molecular imaging of live cells by Raman microscopy. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 17(4), 708–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morjani, H., et al. (1993). Molecular and cellular interactions between intoplicine, DNA, and topoisomerase II studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy. Cancer Research, 53(20), 4784–4790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nabiev, I. R., Morjani, H., & Manfait, M. (1991). Selective analysis of antitumor drug interaction with living cancer cells as probed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. European Biophysics Journal, 19(6), 311–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mochalov, K. E., et al. (2002). Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of topotecan–DNA complexes: binding to DNA induces topotecan dimerization. Optics and Spectroscopy, 93(3), 416–423.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xu, H., et al. (1999). Spectroscopy of single hemoglobin molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Physical Review Letters, 83(21), 4357–4360.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kneipp, K., et al. (1998). Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Physical Review E, 57(6), R6281–R6284.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lu, W., et al. (2010). Gold nano-popcorn-based targeted diagnosis, nanotherapy treatment, and in situ monitoring of photothermal therapy response of prostate cancer cells using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(51), 18103–18114.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sirimuthu, N. M. S., Syme, C. D., & Cooper, J. M. (2010). Monitoring the uptake and redistribution of metal nanoparticles during cell culture using surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry, 82(17), 7369–7373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sockalingum, G. D., et al. (1998). Characterization of island films as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates for detecting low antitumor drug concentrations at single cell level. Biospectroscopy, 4(S5), S71–S78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Talley, C. E., et al. (2004). Intracellular pH sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Analytical Chemistry, 76(23), 7064–7068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reyes-Goddard, J. M., Barr, H., & Stone, N. (2005). Photodiagnosis using Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering of bodily fluids. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, 2(3), 223–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rousseau, D. L., Friedman, J. M., & Williams, P. (1979). The resonance Raman effect, in Raman spectroscopy of gases and liquids (pp. 203–252). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hu, S., et al. (1993). Complete assignment of cytochrome c resonance Raman spectra via enzymic reconstitution with isotopically labeled hemes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 115(26), 12446–12458.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Berezhna, S., Wohlrab, H., & Champion, P. M. (2003). Resonance Raman investigations of cytochrome c conformational change upon interaction with the membranes of intact and Ca2+-exposed mitochondria. Biochemistry, 42(20), 6149–6158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Takahashi, T., et al. (2005). Probing the oxygen activation reaction in intact whole mitochondria through analysis of molecular vibrations. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 127(28), 9970–9971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Maker, P. D., & Terhune, R. W. (1965). Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength. Physical Review, 137(3A), A801–A818.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cheng, J.-x., et al. (2002). Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy and study of lipid vesicles. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, 106(34), 8493–8498.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kano, H., & Hamaguchi, H.-o. (2005). Vibrationally resonant imaging of a single living cell by supercontinuum-based multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy. Optics Express, 13(4), 1322–1327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Le, T., et al. (2006). Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma. Molecular Imaging, 6(3), 205–211.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Petrov, G. I., et al. (2007). Comparison of coherent and spontaneous Raman microspectroscopies for noninvasive detection of single bacterial endospores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(19), 7776–7779.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nan, X., Cheng, J.-X., & Xie, X. S. (2003). Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. Journal of Lipid Research, 44(11), 2202–2208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yue, S., et al. (2012). Label-free analysis of breast tissue polarity by Raman imaging of lipid phase. Biophysical Journal, 102(5), 1215–1223.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Le, T., Huff, T., & Cheng, J.-X. (2009). Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipids in cancer metastasis. BMC Cancer, 9(1), 42.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mitra, R., et al. (2012). Detection of lipid-rich prostate circulating tumour cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. BMC Cancer, 12(1), 540.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holtom, G. R., et al. (2001). Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques. Traffic, 2(11), 781–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schäfer, A., et al. (2003). The latency-associated nuclear antigen homolog of Herpesvirus saimiri inhibits lytic virus replication. Journal of Virology, 77(10), 5911–5925.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Everall, N. J. (2009). Confocal Raman microscopy: performance, pitfalls, and best practice. Applied Spectroscopy, 63(9), 245A–262A.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Uzunbajakava, N., et al. (2003). Nonresonant confocal Raman imaging of DNA and protein distribution in apoptotic cells. Biophysical Journal, 84(6), 3968–3981.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kang, L.-L., et al. (2008). Confocal Raman microscopy on single living young and old erythrocytes. Biopolymers, 89(11), 951–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dochow, S., et al. (2011). Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments. Lab on a Chip, 11(8), 1484–1490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ashok, P. C., et al. (2010). Fiber probe based microfluidic Raman spectroscopy. Optics Express, 18(8), 7642–7649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Freudiger, C. W., et al. (2008). Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Science, 322(5909), 1857–1861.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fu, D., et al. (2012). Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134(8), 3623–3626.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wu, J., et al. (1995). Three-dimensional imaging of objects embedded in turbid media with fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Applied Optics, 34(18), 3425–3430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Stone, N., & Matousek, P. (2008). Advanced transmission Raman spectroscopy: a promising tool for breast disease diagnosis. Cancer Research, 68(11), 4424–4430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stone, N., et al. (2007). Subsurface probing of calcifications with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS): future possibilities for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Analyst, 132(9), 899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Morris, M. D., et al. (2004). Kerr-gated picosecond Raman spectroscopy and Raman photon migration of equine bone tissue with 400-nm excitation. Journal Physical B: Atomic Molecular and Optical, 37(14), 2855–2868.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Morris, M. D., et al. (2005). Kerr-gated time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of equine cortical bone tissue. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10(1), 014014–0140147.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Giepmans, B. N., et al. (2006). The fluorescent toolbox for assessing protein location and function. Science Signaling, 312(5771), 217.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hale, M. B., & Nolan, G. P. (2006). Phospho-specific flow cytometry: intersection of immunology and biochemistry at the single-cell level. Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics, 8(3), 215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Borland, L. M., et al. (2008). Chemical analysis of single cells. Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, 1, 191–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Szakal, C., et al. (2011). Compositional mapping of the surface and interior of mammalian cells at submicrometer resolution. Analytical Chemistry, 83(4), 1207–1213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shreve, A. P., Cherepy, N. J., & Mathies, R. A. (1992). Effective rejection of fluorescence interference in Raman spectroscopy using a shifted excitation difference technique. Applied Spectroscopy, 46(4), 707–711.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Baselt, D. R., & Baldeschwieler, J. D. (1993). Scanned-cantilever atomic force microscope. Review of Scientific Instruments, 64(4), 908–911.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Binnig, G., Quate, C. F., & Gerber, C. (1986). Atomic force microscope. Physical Review Letters, 56(9), 930–933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rugar, D., et al. (1994). Force detection of nuclear magnetic resonance. Science, 264(5165), 1560–1563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Frisbie, C. D., et al. (1994). Functional group imaging by chemical force microscopy. Science-New York Then Washington, 265(5181), 2071–20714.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Radmacher, M., et al. (1992). From molecules to cells: imaging soft samples with the atomic force microscope. Science, 257(5078), 1900–1905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Noy, A., et al. (1995). Chemical force microscopy: exploiting chemically-modified tips to quantify adhesion, friction, and functional group distributions in molecular assemblies. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 117(30), 7943–7951.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Knoll, B., & Keilmann, F. (1999). Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy. Nature, 399(6732), 134–137.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Levi, B. G. (1999). A recent review of NSOM spectroscopy. Physics Today. 18.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hammiche, A., et al. (1999). Photothermal FT-IR spectroscopy: a step towards FT-IR microscopy at a resolution better than the diffraction limit. Applied Spectroscopy, 53(7), 810–815.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Anderson, M. S. (2000). Infrared spectroscopy with an atomic force microscope. Applied Spectroscopy, 54(3), 349–352.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Harris, A., et al. (2009). Raman spectroscopy and advanced mathematical modelling in the discrimination of human thyroid cell lines. Head Neck Oncology, 1(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chan, J. W., et al. (2006). Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells. Biophysical Journal, 90(2), 648–656.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chan, J. W., et al. (2008). Nondestructive identification of individual leukemia cells by laser trapping Raman spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry, 80(6), 2180–2187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jess, P. R. T., et al. (2007). Early detection of cervical neoplasia by Raman spectroscopy. International Journal of Cancer, 121(12), 2723–2728.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zheng, F., Qin, Y., & Chen, K. (2007). Sensitivity map of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy for single-cell analysis of colorectal cancer. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 12(3), 034002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Crow, P., et al. (2005). The use of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between different prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. British Journal of Cancer, 92(12), 69–82.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Taleb, A., et al. (2006). Raman microscopy for the chemometric analysis of tumor cells. The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, 110(39), 19625–19631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Krishna, C. M., et al. (2005). Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 38(1–2), 95–100.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Krishna, C. M., et al. (2006). Combined Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic approach for identification of multidrug resistance phenotype in cancer cell lines. Biopolymers, 82(5), 462–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mannie, M. D., et al. (2005). Activation-dependent phases of T cells distinguished by use of optical tweezers and near infrared Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Immunological Methods, 297(1–2), 53–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Brown, K. L., et al. (2009). Raman spectroscopic differentiation of activated versus non-activated T lymphocytes: an in vitro study of an acute allograft rejection model. Journal of Immunological Methods, 340(1), 48–54.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brown, K. L., et al. (2009). Differentiation of alloreactive versus CD3/CD28 stimulated T-lymphocytes using Raman spectroscopy: a greater specificity for noninvasive acute renal allograft rejection detection. Cytometry. Part A, 75A(11), 917–923.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Huq, F., et al. (2004). Studies on the synthesis and characterization of four trans-planaramineplatinum(II) complexes of the form trans-PtL(NH3)CL2 where L = 2-hydroxypyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine, imidazole, and imidazo(1,2-α)pyridine. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 39(8), 691–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mansy, S., et al. (1978). Heavy metal nucleotide interactions. 12. Competitive reactions in systems of four nucleotides with cis- or trans-diammineplatinum(II). Raman difference spectrophotometry of the relative nucleophilicity of guanosine, cytidine, adenosine, and uridine monophosphates and analogous DNA bases. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 100(2), 607–616.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Alix, A. J. P., et al. (1981). Binding of cis- and trans-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) to nucleic acids studied by Raman spectroscopy. Part. I. Salmon sperm DNA. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 55, 147–152.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Peticolas, W. L., & Thomas, G. A. (1985). Flexibility and base composition dependence of DNA conformation in solution from laser Raman scattering, in structure & motion. In E. Clemeti et al. (Eds.), Membranes, Nucleic Acids & Proteins (pp. 497–519). New York: Adenine Press.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vrána, O., et al. (2007). Raman spectroscopy of DNA modified by intrastrand cross-links of antitumor cisplatin. Journal of Structural Biology, 159(1), 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Saha, A., & Yakovlev, V. V. (2009). Towards a rational drug design: Raman micro-spectroscopy analysis of prostate cancer cells treated with an aqueous extract of Nerium Oleander. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 40(11), 1459–1460.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kast, R. E., et al. (2008). Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model. Biopolymers, 89(3), 235–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Haka, A. S., et al. (2006). In vivo margin assessment during partial mastectomy breast surgery using Raman spectroscopy. Cancer Research, 66(6), 3317–3322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Barman, I., et al. (2013). Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy. Cancer Research, 73(11), 3206–3215.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Abramczyk, H., et al. (2011). The label-free Raman imaging of human breast cancer. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 164(1–2), 123–131.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Brozek-Pluska, B., et al. (2012). Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis. Analyst, 137(16), 3773–3780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bergner, N., et al. (2012). Identification of primary tumors of brain metastases by Raman imaging and support vector machines. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 117, 224–232.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Beljebbar, A., et al. (2010). Ex vivo and in vivo diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma development by Raman spectroscopy coupled to a microprobe. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 398(1), 477–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kirsch, M., et al. (2010). Raman spectroscopic imaging for in vivo detection of cerebral brain metastases. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 398(4), 1707–1713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pandya, A. K., et al. (2008). Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model. Pancreas, 36(2), e1–e8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bergholt, M. S., et al. (2011). Characterizing variability in in vivo Raman spectra of different anatomical locations in the upper gastrointestinal tract toward cancer detection. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 16(3), 037003–037010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bergholt, M. S., et al. (2011). In vivo diagnosis of esophageal cancer using image-guided Raman endoscopy and biomolecular modeling. Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment, 10, 103–112.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Almond, M., et al. (2011). Towards real-time ‘biochemical endoscopy’ for diagnosis of early Barrett’s neoplasia. Gut, 60(Suppl 1), A167–A168.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Auner, A., et al. (2013). Conclusions and data analysis: a 6-year study of Raman spectroscopy of solid tumors at a major pediatric institute. Pediatric Surgery International, 29(2), 129–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kast, R., et al. (2010). Differentiation of small round blue cell tumors using Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 45(6), 1110–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Leslie, D. G., et al. (2012). Identification of pediatric brain neoplasms using Raman spectroscopy. Pediatric Neurosurgery, 48(2), 109–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Wills, H., et al. (2009). Raman spectroscopy detects and distinguishes neuroblastoma and related tissues in fresh and (banked) frozen specimens. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 44(2), 386–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wills, H., et al. (2009). Diagnosis of Wilms’ tumor using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 44(6), 1152–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rabah, R., et al. (2008). Diagnosis of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma using Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 43(1), 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Krafft, C., et al. (2009). Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Biophotonics, 2(1–2), 13–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Allsbrook, W. C., Jr., et al. (2001). Interobserver reproducibility of Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma: urologic pathologists. Human Pathology, 32(1), 74–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Allsbrook, W. C., Jr., et al. (2001). Interobserver reproducibility of Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma: general pathologist. Human Pathology, 32(1), 81–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Patel, I. I., & Martin, F. L. (2010). Discrimination of zone-specific spectral signatures in normal human prostate using Raman spectroscopy. Analyst, 135(12), 3060–3069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Stone, N., et al. (2002). Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 33(7), 564–573.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Crow, P., et al. (2003). The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro. British Journal of Cancer, 89(1), 106–108.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Crow, P., et al. (2005). Assessment of fiberoptic near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of bladder and prostate cancer. Urology, 65(6), 1126–1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Stone, N., et al. (2007). The use of Raman spectroscopy to provide an estimation of the gross biochemistry associated with urological pathologies. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387(5), 1657–1668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Devpura, S., et al. (2010). Detection of benign epithelia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer regions in radical prostatectomy tissues using Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 53(2), 227–232.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Karakiewicz, P. I., et al. (2005). Prognostic impact of positive surgical margins in surgically treated prostate cancer: multi-institutional assessment of 5831 patients. Urology, 66(6), 1245–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wright, J. L., et al. (2010). Positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy predict prostate cancer specific mortality. The Journal of Urology, 183(6), 2213–2218.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tewari, A., et al. (2012). Positive surgical margin and perioperative complication rates of primary surgical treatments for prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing retropubic, laparoscopic, and robotic prostatectomy. European Urology, 62(1), 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cookson, M. S., & Chang, S. S. (2010). Margin control in open radical prostatectomy: what are the real outcomes? Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 28(2), 205–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Roehl, K. A., et al. (2004). Cancer progression and survival rates following anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy in 3,478 consecutive patients: long-term results. The Journal of Urology, 172(3), 910–914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tsuboi, T., et al. (2005). Is intraoperative frozen section analysis an efficient way to reduce positive surgical margins? Urology, 66(6), 1287–1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Koljenovic, S., et al. (2002). Discriminating vital tumor from necrotic tissue in human glioblastoma tissue samples by Raman spectroscopy. Laboratory Investigation, 82(10), 1265–1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Krafft, C., et al. (2012). Raman spectroscopic imaging as complementary tool for histopathologic assessment of brain tumors. Proc SPIE 8207, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics, VIII, 82074I–82074I. doi: 10.1117/12.908668.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Krafft, C., et al. (2007). Methodology for fiber-optic Raman mapping and FTIR imaging of metastases in mouse brains. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(4), 1122–1142.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stelling, A., et al. (2010). In vivo fiber-optic Raman mapping of metastases in mouse brains. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1267(1), 388–388.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Krafft, C., et al. (2008). Raman and FTIR imaging of lung tissue: methodology for control samples. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 46(2), 141–149.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Krafft, C., et al. (2009). Raman and FTIR imaging of lung tissue: bronchopulmonary sequestration. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 40(6), 595–603.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Krafft, C., et al. (2008). Raman mapping and FTIR imaging of lung tissue: congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation. The Analyst, 133, 361–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Koljenovic, S., et al. (2004). Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 9(6), 1187–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Krafft, C., et al. (2008). Raman and FTIR microscopic imaging of colon tissue: a comparative study. Journal of Biophotonics, 1(2), 154–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Harisinghani, M. G., et al. (2003). Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 348, 2491–2499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Smith, J., et al. (2003). Raman spectral mapping in the assessment of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer. Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment, 2(4), 327–331.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Smith, J., et al. (2005). Raman spectroscopy is sensitive and specific in the detaction of lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Diagnostic Optical Spectroscopy in Biomedicine 111. Munich, Germany: Optical Society of America Vol 5862, PTuC2. doi: 10.1364/ECBO.2005.TuC2
  138. 138.
    Sattlecker, M., et al. (2010). Investigation of support vector machines and Raman spectroscopy for lymph node diagnostics. The Analyst, 135, 895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bonifacio, A., & Sergo, V. (2010). Effects of sample orientation in Raman microspectroscopy of collagen fibers and their impact on the interpretation of the amide III band. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 53(2), 314–317.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ignatieva, N., et al. (2007). Molecular processes and structural alterations in laser reshaping of cartilage. Laser Physics Letters, 4(10), 749.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Penel, G., et al. (2005). Composition of bone and apatitic biomaterials as revealed by intravital Raman microspectroscopy. Bone, 36(5), 893–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lopes, C. B., et al. (2010). The effect of the association of near infrared laser therapy, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration on tibial fractures treated with internal rigid fixation: a Raman spectroscopic study. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A, 94(4), 1257–1263.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Lopes, C. B., et al. (2007). Infrared laser photobiomodulation (λ830 nm) on bone tissue around dental implants: a Raman spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy study in rabbits. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 25(2), 96–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cukrowski, I., et al. (2007). Modeling and spectroscopic studies of bisphosphonate–bone interactions. The Raman, NMR and crystallographic investigations of Ca–HEDP complexes. Bone, 41(4), 668–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Morris, M. (2010). Raman spectroscopy of bone and cartilage. In P. Matousek & M. D. Morris (Eds.), Emerging Raman applications and techniques in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields (pp. 347–364). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Nanda, K., et al. (2000). Accuracy of the Papanicolaou test in screening for and follow-up of cervical cytologic abnormalities: a systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132(10), 810–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Houssami, N., et al. (2003). Sydney Breast Imaging Accuracy Study: comparative sensitivity and specificity of mammography and sonography in young women with symptoms. AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology, 180(4), 935–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Nakama, H., et al. (1997). Clinical diagnostic accuracy of faecal occult blood test for anal diseases. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 9(2), 139–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Eastham, J. A., et al. (2003). Variation of serum prostate-specific antigen levels: an evaluation of year-to-year fluctuations. JAMA, 289(20), 2695–2700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Draisma, G., et al. (2009). Lead time and overdiagnosis in prostate-specific antigen screening: importance of methods and context. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 101(6), 374–383.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Etzioni, R., et al. (2002). Overdiagnosis due to prostate-specific antigen screening: lessons from U.S. prostate cancer incidence trends. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94(13), 981–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Thompson, I. M., Tangen, C. M., & Kristal, A. R. (2008). Prostate-specific antigen: a misused and maligned prostate cancer biomarker. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100(21), 1487–1488.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Grubisha, D. S., et al. (2003). Femtomolar detection of prostate-specific antigen: an immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering and immunogold labels. Analytical Chemistry, 75(21), 5936–5943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schlücker, S., et al. (2006). Immuno-Raman microspectroscopy: in situ detection of antigens in tissue specimens by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 37(7), 719–721.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Morgan, R., et al. (2011). Engrailed-2 (EN2): a tumor specific urinary biomarker for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 17(5), 1090–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Bourdoumis, A., et al. (2010). The novel prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) biomarker. International Braz J Urol, 36, 665–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hansel, D. E., et al. (2007). Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies. The Journal of Urology, 177(5), 1736–1740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Guimaraes, A. E., et al. (2006). Near infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIRS): a technique for doping control. Spectroscopy, 20(4), 185–194.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pilotto, S., et al. (2001). Analysis of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a new technique for a transcutaneous non-invasive diagnosis of blood components. Lasers in Medical Science, 16(1), 2–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Park, C., et al. (2007). Classification of glucose concentration in diluted urine using the low-resolution Raman spectroscopy and kernel optimization methods. Physiological Measurement, 28(5), 583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Park, C. S., J. M. Choi, and K.S. Park (2005). Urine analysis in diluted situation using low-resolution Raman spectroscope. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 27th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-EMBS.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lambert, J. L., Borchert, M., & Pelletier, C. C. (2005). Glucose determination in human aqueous humor with Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10(3), 031110–0311108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Enejder, A. M., et al. (2005). Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive glucose measurements. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10(3), 031114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Pichardo-Molina, J., et al. (2007). Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients. Lasers in Medical Science, 22(4), 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Li, X., & Bai, J. (2001). Study of serum fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of cancer. Proceedings SPIE, 4432, 124–129.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Maquelin, K., et al. (2003). Prospective study of the performance of vibrational spectroscopies for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens recovered from blood cultures. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41(1), 324–329.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Rosch, P., et al. (2005). Chemotaxonomic identification of single bacteria by micro-Raman spectroscopy: application to clean-room-relevant biological contaminations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(3), 1626–1637.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Esposito, A. P., Talley, C. E., Huser, T., Hollars, C. W., Schaldach, C. M., & Lane, S. M. (2003). Analysis of single bacterial spores by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 57(7), 868–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ibelings, M. S., et al. (2005). Rapid identification of Candida spp. in peritonitis patients by Raman spectroscopy. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 11(5), 353–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Spencer, A., et al. (2011). Staphylococcus aureus identification and antibiotic resistance determination using Raman spectroscopy. In American College of Surgeons 2011 Meeting. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Jarvis, R. M., & Goodacre, R. (2004). Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 232(2), 127–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Rösch, P., et al. (2005). Raman spectroscopic identification of single yeast cells. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 36(5), 377–379.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Maquelin, K., et al. (2002). Rapid identification of Candida species by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 40(2), 594–600.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Araujo-Andrade, C., et al. (2007). Detection of the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in human colostrum by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 12(3), 034006–034006. 5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ettrich, R., et al. (2007). Structure of the dimeric N-glycosylated form of fungal beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase revealed by computer modeling, vibrational spectroscopy, and biochemical studies. BMC Structural Biology, 7(1), 32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Blanch, E. W., et al. (2002). Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity. Journal of General Virology, 83(10), 2593–2600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Schäfer, A. T., & Kaufmann, J. D. (1999). What happens in freezing bodies?: experimental study of histological tissue change caused by freezing injuries. Forensic Science International, 102(2–3), 149–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Shim, M. G., & Wilson, B. C. (1996). The effects of ex vivo handling procedures on the near-infrared Raman spectra of normal mammalian tissues. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 63(5), 662–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Faoláin, E., et al. (2005). A study examining the effects of tissue processing on human tissue sections using vibrational spectroscopy. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 38(1–2), 121–127.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Faoláin, E. Ó., et al. (2005). Raman spectroscopic evaluation of efficacy of current paraffin wax section dewaxing agents. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, 53(1), 121–129.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Huang, Z., et al. (2003). Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues. International Journal of Oncology, 23, 649–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Careche, M., et al. (1999). Structural changes of hake (Merluccius merluccius L.) fillets: effects of freezing and frozen storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(3), 952–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Badii, F., & Howell, N. K. (2003). Elucidation of the effect of formaldehyde and lipids on frozen stored cod collagen by FT-Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(5), 1440–1446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Mariani, M. M., et al. (2009). Impact of fixation on in vitro cell culture lines monitored with Raman spectroscopy. The Analyst, 134(6), 1154–1161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Koljenovic´, S., et al. (2005). Tissue characterization using high wave number Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10(3), 031116–03111611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Nijssen, A., et al. (2007). Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from perilesional skin using high wave-number Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 12(3), 034004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Beatrice, E. S., & Frisch, G. D. (1973). Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 27(5), 322–326.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Heidenreich, A., et al. (2008). EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. European Urology, 53(1), 68–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Crawford, E. D., et al. (1989). A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. New England Journal of Medicine, 321(7), 419–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Eisenberger, M. A., et al. (1998). Bilateral orchiectomy with or without flutamide for metastatic prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 339(15), 1036–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Denis, L., et al. (1998). Maximal androgen blockade: final analysis of EORTC phase III trial 30853. European Urology, 33(2), 144–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Tannock, I. F., et al. (2004). Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(15), 1502–1512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Petrylak, D. P., et al. (2004). Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(15), 1513–1520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kwak, C., et al. (2002). Prognostic significance of the nadir prostate specific antigen level after hormone therapy for prostate cancer. The Journal of Urology, 168(3), 995–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Huang, S. P., et al. (2011). Impact of prostate–specific antigen (PSA) nadir and time to PSA nadir on disease progression in prostate cancer treated with androgen–deprivation therapy. The Prostate, 71(11), 1189–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Billis, A., et al. (2008). The impact of the 2005 international society of urological pathology consensus conference on standard Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma in needle biopsies. The Journal of Urology, 180(2), 548–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Benaim, E. A., Pace, C., & Roehrborn, C. (2002). Gleason score predicts androgen independent progression after androgen deprivation therapy. European Urology, 42(1), 12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Uesugi, T., et al. (2012). Primary Gleason grade 4 impact on biochemical recurrence after permanent interstitial brachytherapy in Japanese patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 82(2), e219–e223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Wang, L., et al. (2013). Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool in diagnosis and prognosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 18(8), 087001–087001.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Draga, R. O. P., et al. (2010). In vivo bladder cancer diagnosis by high-volume Raman spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry, 82(14), 5993–5999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Tunnell, J. W., et al. (2003). Diagnostic tissue spectroscopy and its applications to gastrointestinal endoscopy. Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 5(2), 65–73.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Molckovsky, A., et al. (2003). Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the colon: differentiating adenomatous from hyperplastic polyps. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 57(3), 396–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Zeng, H., et al. (2010). In vivo Raman spectroscopy for early lung cancer detection. In Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP), 2010. Asia.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Zeng, H., et al. (2009). Raman spectroscopy for in vivo tissue analysis and diagnosis at the macro- and microscopic levels. Optical Society of America. Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP), Shanghai, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Huang, Z., et al. (2004). Raman spectroscopy of in vivo cutaneous melanin. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 9(6), 1198–1205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Huang, Z., et al. (2005). Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 81(5), 1219–1226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Mahadevan-Jansen, A., et al. (1998). Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 68(3), 427–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Robichaux-Viehoever, A., et al. (2007). Characterization of Raman spectra measured in vivo for the detection of cervical dysplasia. Applied Spectroscopy, 61(9), 986–993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Duraipandian, S., et al. (2011). In vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer using Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithm techniques. Analyst, 136(20), 4328–4336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Motz, J. T., et al. (2006). In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 11(2), 021003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Lima, C. J., et al. (2004). Side-viewing fiberoptic catheter for biospectroscopy applications. Lasers in Medical Science, 19(1), 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Lima, C. J., et al. (2007). Multifiber optical catheter with bending control of distal end: applications of Raman biospectroscopy. Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 74(1), 107–114.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Huang, Z., et al. (2009). Integrated Raman spectroscopy and trimodal wide-field imaging techniques for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy. Optics Letters, 34(6), 758–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Utzinger, U., & Richards-Kortum, R. (2003). Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 8(1), 121–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Motz, J. T., et al. (2005). Real-time Raman system for in vivo disease diagnosis. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10(3), 031113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Motz, J. T., et al. (2004). Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy. Applied Optics, 43(3), 542–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Prieto, M. C., et al. (2005). Use of picosecond Kerr-gated Raman spectroscopy to suppress signals from both surface and deep layers in bladder and prostate tissue. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 10(4), 44006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Matousek, P., & Stone, N. (2009). Emerging concepts in deep Raman spectroscopy of biological tissue. The Analyst, 134(6), 1058–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Stone, N., et al. (2008). Novel Raman signal recovery from deeply buried tissue components. Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 6853, article id. 68530N, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Matousek, P. (2007). Deep non-invasive Raman spectroscopy of living tissue and powders. Chemical Society Reviews, 36(8), 1292–1304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Qian, X., et al. (2008). In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags. Nat Biotech, 26(1), 83–90.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Jokerst, J. V., et al. (2012). Gold nanorods for ovarian cancer detection with photoacoustic imaging and resection guidance via Raman imaging in living mice. ACS Nano, 6(11), 10366–10377.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel E. Kast
    • 1
  • Stephanie C. Tucker
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kevin Killian
    • 1
  • Micaela Trexler
    • 1
  • Kenneth V. Honn
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gregory W. Auner
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Smart Sensors and Integrated Microsystems Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Bioactive Lipids Research Program (BLRP), Department of PathologyWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  3. 3.Karmanos Cancer InstituteDetroitUSA
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations