Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 31, Issue 1–2, pp 41–46 | Cite as

The present and future of gene profiling in breast cancer

  • E. EspinosaEmail author
  • A. Gámez-Pozo
  • I. Sánchez-Navarro
  • A. Pinto
  • C. A. Castañeda
  • E. Ciruelos
  • J. Feliu
  • J. A. Fresno Vara


Gene signatures can provide prognostic and predictive information to help in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Although many of these signatures have been described, only a few have been properly validated. MammaPrint and OncoType offer prognostic information and identify low-risk patients who do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. With regard to prediction of response, molecular subtypes of breast cancer differ in their sensitivity to chemotherapy, although further studies are needed in this field. Cost, small sample size, and the need to use central laboratories are common limitations to the widespread use of these tools.


Gene expression profiling Breast cancer Chemotherapy, adjuvant Prognosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Espinosa
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • A. Gámez-Pozo
    • 2
  • I. Sánchez-Navarro
    • 2
  • A. Pinto
    • 1
  • C. A. Castañeda
    • 3
    • 4
  • E. Ciruelos
    • 3
  • J. Feliu
    • 1
  • J. A. Fresno Vara
    • 2
  1. 1.Service of Medical OncologyHospital Universitario La PazMadridSpain
  2. 2.Research Unit - INGEMMHospital Universitario La Paz—IdiPAZMadridSpain
  3. 3.Service of Medical OncologyHospital Universitario Doce de OctubreMadridSpain
  4. 4.Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades NeoplásicasLimaPeru
  5. 5.Hospital Universitario La Paz—Hospital De Día 1ª PlantaMadridSpain

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