Morphine and tumor growth and metastasis
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- Afsharimani, B., Cabot, P. & Parat, MO. Cancer Metastasis Rev (2011) 30: 225. doi:10.1007/s10555-011-9285-0
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Morphine is an analgesic widely used to alleviate cancer pain. In addition, the perioperative management of pain in cancer surgery patients most often includes opioids. However, there are reports that these drugs may alter cancer recurrence or metastasis. Several mechanisms have been proposed, such as the modulation of the immune response or cellular pathways that control the survival and migratory behavior of cancer cells. The published literature, however, presents some discrepancies, with reports suggesting that opioids may either promote or prevent the spread of cancer. It is of great importance to determine whether opioids, in particular the most widely used, morphine, may increase the risk of metastasis when used in cancer surgery. This review examines the available data on the effects of morphine which influence cancer metastasis or recurrence, including immunomodulation, tumor cell aggressiveness, and angiogenesis, with special emphasis on recently published clinical and laboratory based studies. We further discuss the parameters that may explain the difference between reports on the effects of morphine on cancer.