Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 595–606

Expression of tenascin-C and its isoforms in the breast

NON-THEMATIC REVIEW

Abstract

Tenascin-C (TNC) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein which is frequently up-regulated in a variety of pathological conditions including chronic inflammation and cancer. TNC has been implicated in the modulation of cell migration, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. Multiple isoforms of TNC can be generated through the alternative splicing of nine exons located in the fibronectin type III region of the molecule. The profile of isoforms expressed differs between cancers and normal breast, with the fully truncated TNC isoform being predominant in normal and benign tissues and higher molecular weight isoforms induced predominantly in cancer. The addition of extra domains within the fibronectin type III repeat domain greatly affects TNC function with multiple exon combinations available for splicing. Exons 14 and 16 are considered to be tumour-associated and have been shown to affect breast cell line invasion and growth in vitro to a greater extent than the full-length TNC isoform. This mini review will provide a summary of the literature to date regarding the expression of TNC isoforms in the breast and also discuss more recent developments in the field regarding exon AD1.

Keywords

Tenascin-C TNC isoforms Breast cancer Extracellular matrix 

Abbreviations

AD

Additional domain

DCIS

Ductal carcinoma in situ

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EGFL

Epidermal growth factor-like

EMT

Epithelial–mesenchymal transition

ER

Oestrogen receptor

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FN

Fibronectin

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

ISH

In situ hybridisation

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MFS

Metastasis-free survival

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MNU

N-methyl nitrosourea

NSCLC

Non-small cell lung cancer

PFS

Progression-free survival

PRS

Post-relapse survival

SPF

S-phase fraction

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor beta

TNC

Tenascin-C

TNC-16

Tenascin-C with only exon 16 of variable region

TNC-14/16

Tenascin-C with only exons 14 and 16 of variable region

TNC-14/AD1/16

Tenascin-C with exons 14, AD1 and 16 of variable region

TNC-L

Full-length tenascin-C splice variant

TNC-S

Fully truncated tenascin-C

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular MedicineUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

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