Cancer and metastasis: prevention and treatment by green tea
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Metastasis is the most deadly aspect of cancer and results from several interconnected processes including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion, migration, and invasion into the surrounding tissue. The appearance of metastases in organs distant from the primary tumor is the most destructive feature of cancer. Metastasis remains the principal cause of the deaths of cancer patients despite decades of research aimed at restricting tumor growth. Therefore, inhibition of metastasis is one of the most important issues in cancer research. Several in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies have reported that the consumption of green tea may decrease cancer risk. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, major component of green tea, has been shown to inhibit tumor invasion and angiogenesis which are essential for tumor growth and metastasis. This article summarizes the effect of green tea and its major polyphenolic compounds on cancer and metastasis against most commonly diagnosed cancer sites.