Cardiac and respiratory-gated volumetric murine ultrasound
Current cardiovascular ultrasound mainly employs planar imaging techniques to assess function and physiology. These techniques rely on geometric assumptions, which are dependent on the imaging plane, susceptible to inter-observer variability, and may be inaccurate when studying complex diseases. Here, we developed a gated volumetric murine ultrasound technique to visualize cardiovascular motion with high spatiotemporal resolution and directly evaluate cardiovascular health. Cardiac and respiratory-gated cine loops, acquired at 1000 frames-per-second from sequential positions, were temporally registered to generate a four-dimensional (4D) dataset. We applied this technique to (1) evaluate left ventricular (LV) function from both healthy mice and mice with myocardial infarction and (2) characterize aortic wall strain of angiotensin II-induced dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysms in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Combined imaging and processing times for the 4D technique was approximately 2–4 times longer than conventional 2D approaches, but substantially more data is collected with 4D ultrasound and further optimization can be implemented to reduce imaging times. Direct volumetric measurements of 4D cardiac data aligned closely with those obtained from MRI, contrary to conventional methods, which were sensitive to transducer alignment, leading to overestimation or underestimation of estimated LV parameters in infarcted hearts. Green–Lagrange circumferential strain analysis revealed higher strain values proximal and distal to the aneurysm than within the aneurysmal region, consistent with published reports. By eliminating the need for geometrical assumptions, the presented 4D technique can be used to more accurately evaluate cardiac function and aortic pulsatility. Furthermore, this technique allows for the visualization of regional differences that may be overlooked with conventional 2D approaches.
KeywordsAnimal models and imaging Circumferential strain Abdominal aortic aneurysm Aortic dissection Myocardial infarction Ultrasound Volumetric imaging
The authors acknowledge technical assistance from Kristiina Aasa, Stephen Buttars, and Andrew Needles at FUJIFILM VisualSonics. The work of P. P. Vlachos was supported by the National Institutes of Health through Grant HL106276-01A1. The work of C. J. Goergen was supported by the American Heart Association through Grant SDG18220010 and the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, funded in part by Grant Number (UL1TR001108) from the National Institutes of Health, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Clinical and Translational Sciences Award.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to report.
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Purdue Animal Care and Use Committee.
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