The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging

, Volume 32, Issue 12, pp 1725–1733 | Cite as

Cardiac magnetic resonance and galectin-3 level as predictors of prognostic outcomes for non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients

  • Da-Jun HuEmail author
  • Jing Xu
  • Wei Du
  • Jian-Xin Zhang
  • Min Zhong
  • Ya-Nan Zhou
Original Paper


This study was aimed at determining whether late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in conjunction with Galectin-3 (Gal-3) level offered more precise prognosis of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) in comparison to LGE alone. Results of LGE and Gal-3 expression in 192 patients with NICM, including 85 subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 107 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), were examined. As suggested by the characteristics of LGE and Gal-3 levels, patients were divided into four groups: LGE positive + low Gal-3 (n = 10 for DCM, n = 15 for HCM), LGE positive + high Gal-3 (n = 25 for DCM, n = 51 for HCM), LGE negative + low Gal-3 (n = 32 for DCM, n = 29 for HCM), LGE negative + high Gal-3 (n = 18 for DCM, n = 12 for HCM). Primary endpoints over the follow-up period included major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and univariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the survival status of patients with NICM. The optimal cut-off value of Gal-3 level for two types of NICM was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis (13.38 U/L for DCM and 14.40 U/L for HCM). The combination of LGE and Gal-3 levels offered a more significant prognostic value than using LGE alone for both DCM and HCM (DCM P = 0.001 < 0.012; HCM P = 0.037 < 0.040). Moreover, the Cox proportional hazard model suggested that both LGE status [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.62, P = 0.017] and Gal-3 level (HR = 1.16, P = 0.013) were significant predictors of MACEs in DCM, while they did not appear to have significant prognostic values for HCM (P = 0.06 and 0.64). Furthermore, the multivariate analysis only confirmed LGE as an independent element in predicting prognosis of DCM (HR = 12.19, P = 0.026). In conclusion, LGE status was an independent indicator of DCM prognosis, yet the insignificant role of LGE in HCM prognosis could be limited by sample size.


Late gadolinium enhancement Cardiovascular magnetic resonance Galectin-3 Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Prognosis Major adverse cardiac events 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All Authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Da-Jun Hu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jing Xu
    • 1
  • Wei Du
    • 1
  • Jian-Xin Zhang
    • 1
  • Min Zhong
    • 1
  • Ya-Nan Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiologythe First Hospital of ChenzhouChenzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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