Image orientation for three-dimensional echocardiography of congenital heart disease
- First Online:
To date there has been little discussion about image orientation for three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography when applied to congenital heart lesions. Anatomic relations cannot be assumed in congenital heart disease and image cropping during post processing may by necessity remove external or even internal anatomic references. We present an approach to consistent anatomic orientation which is both intuitive and consistent with regard to superior–inferior, anterior–posterior and left–right axes. Such anatomic orientation is also concordant with other common 3D imaging modes such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Views derived from standard cross sectional echocardiography have such universal familiarity that analogous 3D projections of these views may be retained but novel hitherto unavailable views such as en face views of the cardiac septums or atrioventricular valves may be projected using anatomic orientation.
KeywordsThree dimensional echocardiography Congenital heart disease Image orientation