The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging

, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 1205–1222 | Cite as

Potential role of three-dimensional rotational angiography and C-arm CT for valvular repair and implantation

  • Jonathan G. Schwartz
  • Anne M. Neubauer
  • Thomas E. Fagan
  • Niels J. Noordhoek
  • Michael Grass
  • John D. CarrollEmail author
Original Paper


Imaging modalities utilized in the interventional cardiology suite have seen an impressive evolution and expansion recently, particularly with regard to the recent interest in three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Despite this, the backbone of visualization in the catheterization laboratory remains two-dimensional (2D) X-ray fluoroscopy and cine-angiography. New imaging techniques under development, referred to as three-dimensional rotational angiography (RA) and C-arm CT, hold great promise for improving current device implantation and understanding of cardiovascular anatomy. This paper reviews the evolution of rotational angiography and advanced 3D X-ray imaging applications to interventional cardiology.


Structural heart disease 3D Congenital heart disease C-arm CT Rotational angiography Image guidance 



The authors would like to thank many contributors to the work described in this article: Onno Wink, Ph.D. (Philips Healthcare, Bothell, WA), for scientific advice and coordination on this project; Dirk Schäfer, Ph.D. (Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg, Germany) for studies leading to the development of improved X-ray imaging protocols; Peter Eshuis, Ph.D. (Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands), for X-ray software development; and finally, the nurses and staff in the cardiac catheterization labs at both University Hospital and the Children’s Hospital in Denver for their patience and support during these studies.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan G. Schwartz
    • 1
  • Anne M. Neubauer
    • 3
  • Thomas E. Fagan
    • 4
  • Niels J. Noordhoek
    • 5
  • Michael Grass
    • 6
  • John D. Carroll
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Division of CardiologyUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Philips Research North AmericaBriarcliff ManorUSA
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA
  5. 5.Philips HealthcareBestThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Philips Research LaboratoriesHamburgGermany

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