Carotid artery intima media thickness, plaque and framingham cardiovascular score in Asia, Africa/Middle East and Latin America: the PARC-AALA Study

  • Pierre-Jean TouboulEmail author
  • Rafael Hernández-Hernández
  • Serdar Küçükoğlu
  • Kam-Sang Woo
  • Eric Vicaut
  • Julien Labreuche
  • Chris Migom
  • Honorio Silva
  • Raul Vinueza
  • for the PARC-AALA Investigators
Original Paper



The PARC-AALA (Paroi artérielle et Risque Cardiovasculaire in Asia Africa/ Middle East and Latin America) study was designed to evaluate the correlation between intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCAIMT), carotid plaque and absolute cardiovascular risk in a multi-ethnic population.


An international, cross-sectional, study including 79 centres from 21 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. Two thousand three hundred and twenty-eight subjects, meeting all inclusion criteria, were stratified by risk factors groups (no modifiable factor or at least both uncontrolled hypertension and hypercholesterolemia). CCAIMT, presence of plaque and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed for each individual.


Some intergeographical characteristics in demographics, and risk factors were found accompanying early atherosclerosis marker differences. In Asia where the subjects were at lower risk, the mean CCAIMT was 4% lower than in Africa/Middle East and Latin America. On multiple linear regression analysis CCAIMT and carotid plaque were independently associated with increased Framingham cardiovascular score (FCS) without heterogeneity across geographic regions. CCAIMT and carotid plaque explained roughly 20% of the FCS in both genders.


The PARC-AALA study confirms the correlation between CCAIMT and FCS in three different populations. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque evaluation may represent a complementary predictive tool for detection of cardiovascular disease in individuals.


Carotid plaque Framingham score Hypercholesterolemia Hypertension Intima media thickness Ultrasound 



Body mass index


British Regional Heart Study


Common carotid artery


Common carotid artery intima-media thickness


Coronary heart disease


Framingham cardiovascular score


High density lipoprotein


Intima-media thickness


Low density lipoprotein


Left ventricular hypertrophy


Quality index


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre-Jean Touboul
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rafael Hernández-Hernández
    • 2
  • Serdar Küçükoğlu
    • 3
  • Kam-Sang Woo
    • 4
  • Eric Vicaut
    • 5
  • Julien Labreuche
    • 1
  • Chris Migom
    • 6
  • Honorio Silva
    • 6
  • Raul Vinueza
    • 6
  • for the PARC-AALA Investigators
  1. 1.Department of Neurology and Stroke CentreDenis Diderot University-Paris VII.ParisFrance
  2. 2.Clinical Pharmacology Unit, School of MedicineUniversidad CentroccidentalBarquisimetoVenezuela
  3. 3.Istanbul University Institute of CardiologyIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Prince of Wales HospitalHong KongP.R. China
  5. 5.Lariboisière HospitalParisFrance
  6. 6.Pfizer Inc.New YorkUSA

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