Plaque burden, plaque morphology, and HDL: can atherosclerosis imaging provide insights into the complex, multifactorial etiology of atherosclerosis progression and vulnerability?

Editorial Comment

References

  1. 1.
    Phan BAP, Chu B, Polissar N, Hatsukami TS, Yuan C, Zhao XQ. Association of high density lipoprotein levels and carotid atherosclerotic plaque characteristics by magnetic resonance imaging (2006) CAIM Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, Fisher LD, Cheung MC, Morse JS, Dowdy AA, Marino EK, Bolson EL, Alaupovic P, Frohlich J, Albers JJ (2001) Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 345:1583–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Libby P, Theroux P (2005) Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. Circulation 111:3481–3488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) (2001) JAMA 285:2486–2497Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pearson TA, Mensah GA, Alexander RW, Anderson JL, Cannon RO 3rd, Criqui M, Fadl YY, Fortmann SP, Hong Y, Myers GL, Rifai N, Smith SC Jr, Taubert K, Tracy RP, Vinicor F; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; American Heart Association (2003) Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 107:499–511Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, Brown BG, Ganz P, Vogel RA, Crowe T, Howard G, Cooper CJ, Brodie B, Grines CL, DeMaria AN (2004) REVERSAL Investigators. Effect of intensive compared with moderate lipid-lowering therapy on progression of coronary atherosclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291:1071–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Sipahi I, Libby P, Raichlen JS, Ballantyne CM, Davignon J, Erbel R, Fruchart JC, Tardif JC, Schoenhagen P, Crowe T, Cain V, Wolski K, Goormastic M, Tuzcu EM (2006) ASTEROID Investigators. Effect of very high-intensity statin therapy on regression of coronary atherosclerosis: the ASTEROID trial. JAMA 295:1556–1565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corti R, Fuster V, Fayad ZA, Worthley SG, Helft G, Chaplin WF, Muntwyler J, Viles-Gonzalez JF, Weinberger J, Smith DA, Mizsei G, Badimon JJ (2005) Effects of aggressive versus conventional lipid-lowering therapy by simvastatin on human atherosclerotic lesions: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:106–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nissen SE, Tsunoda T, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, Cooper CJ, Yasin M, Eaton GM, Lauer MA, Sheldon WS, Grines CL, Halpern S, Crowe T, Blankenship JC, Kerensky R (2003) Effect of recombinant ApoA-I Milano on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:2292–2300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schartl M, Bocksch W, Koschyk DH, Voelker W, Karsch KR, Kreuzer J, Hausmann D, Beckmann S, Gross M (2001) Use of intravascular ultrasound to compare effects of different strategies of lipid-lowering therapy on plaque volume and composition in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 104:387–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nair A, Kuban BD, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, Nissen SE, Vince DG (2002) Coronary plaque classification with intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency data analysis. Circulation 106:2200–2206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, Crowe T, Sasiela WJ, Tsai J, Orazem J, Magorien RD, O’Shaughnessy C, Ganz P (2005) Reversal of Atherosclerosis with Aggressive Lipid Lowering (REVERSAL) Investigators Statin therapy, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 352:29–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schoenhagen P, Tuzcu EM, Apperson-Hansen C, Wang C, Wolski K, Lin S, Sipahi I, Nicholls SJ, Magyar WA, Loyd A, Churchill T, Crowe T, Nissen SE (2006) Determinants of arterial wall remodeling during lipid-lowering therapy: serial intravascular ultrasound observations from the Reversal of Atherosclerosis with Aggressive Lipid Lowering Therapy (REVERSAL) trial. Circulation 113:2826–2834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhao XQ, Yuan C, Hatsukami TS, Frechette EH, Kang XJ, Maravilla KR, Brown BG (2001) Effects of prolonged intensive lipid-lowering therapy on the characteristics of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in vivo by MRI: a case-control study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21:1623–1629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Corti R, Fayad ZA, Fuster V, Worthley SG, Helft G, Chesebro J, Mercuri M, Badimon JJ (2001) Effects of lipid-lowering by simvastatin on human atherosclerotic lesions: a longitudinal study by high-resolution, noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging.Circulation 104:249–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Mieghem CA, Bruining N, Schaar JA, McFadden E, Mollet N, Cademartiri F, Mastik F, Ligthart JM, Granillo GA, Valgimigli M, Sianos G, van der Giessen WJ, Backx B, Morel MA, Van Es GA, Sawyer JD, Kaplow J, Zalewski A, van der Steen AF, de Feyter P, Serruys PW (2005) Rationale and methods of the integrated biomarker and imaging study (IBIS): combining invasive and non-invasive imaging with biomarkers to detect subclinical atherosclerosis and assess coronary lesion biology. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 21:425–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Van Mieghem CA, McFadden EP, de Feyter PJ, Bruining N, Schaar JA, Mollet NR, Cademartiri F, Goedhart D, de Winter S, Granillo GR, Valgimigli M, Mastik F, van der Steen AF, van der Giessen WJ, Sianos G, Backx B, Morel MA, van Es GA, Zalewski A, Serruys PW (2006) Noninvasive detection of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis coupled with assessment of changes in plaque characteristics using novel invasive imaging modalities: the Integrated Biomarker and Imaging Study (IBIS). J Am Coll Cardiol 47:1134–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Radiology and Department of Cardiovascular MedicineThe Cleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations